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Drymoluber brazili (GOMES, 1918)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Brazilian Woodland Racer
Portuguese: Cobra-Cipó 
SynonymDrymobius brazilii GOMES 1918: 81
Drymobius rubriceps AMARAL 1923: 85
Drymobius rubriceps AMARAL 1926: 100
Drymobius boddaerti — AMARAL 1929 (partim)
Drymoluber brazili — STUART 1932
Drymoluber brazili — CAMPOS NOGUEIRA 2001
Drymoluber brazili — COSTA et al. 2013
Drymoluber brazili — WALLACH et al. 2014: 247
Drymoluber brazili — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionSC Brazil (Minas Gerais, Distrito Federal, Bahia [HR 35: 191], Rondonia, Piaui, Goias, S Ceará), Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014)

Type locality: Estaçâo de Engenheiro Lisbôo, near Uberaba, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil  
TypesHolotype: IBSP (= IB) 696, adult male (possibly lost in fire in 2010) Paratypes: Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, IBSP 383, adult male, SVL 863 mm, TL 394 mm, collected in February 1913, in the Estação Ferroviária Santa Eudóxia (currently inactive), municipality of São Carlos (-21.77, -47.78), São Paulo, Brazil; IBSP 573, adult female, SVL 854 mm, TL 422 mm, collected in February 1914, in the Estação Ferroviária de Sampaio Vidal (currently inactive), municipality of Ribeirão Bonito (-22.07, -48.18), São Paulo, Brazil; IBSP 574, adult male, SVL 862 mm, TL 268+N mm (broken tail), without locality data; IBSP 741, adult male, SVL 1120 mm, TL 162+N mm (broken tail), collected in December 1914, in the Estação Ferroviária Java (currently inactive), municipality of Boa Esperança do Sul (-21.99, -48.39), São Paulo, Brazil; IBSP 1286, adult female, SVL 898 mm, TL 402 mm, collected in May 1917, in the Estação Ferroviária Pedregulho (currently inactive), municipality of Pedregulho (-20.26, -47.48), São Paulo, Brazil. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Drymoluber brazili can be distinguished from D. apurimacensis and D. dichrous by the following combination of characters: a) 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows with two apical pits; b) 182–200 ventrals in males, 185– 202 in females; c) 109–127 subcaudals in males, 109–126 in females; d) 19–25 maxillary teeth. See Table 5 in COSTA et al. 2013.

Comparisons: Drymoluber apurimacensis has 13-13-13 dorsal scales rows, and D. dichrous has 15-15-15. Apical pits are absent in D. apurimacensis. Drymoluber apurimacensis has 158–164 ventrals in males and 166–182 in females, 84–93 subcaudals in males and 87–91 in females. Drymoluber dichrous has 157–173 ventrals in males and 160–180 in females, 87–110 subcaudals in males and 86–109 in females. Drymoluber apurimacensis has 14– 16 maxillary teeth.
Small specimens of Drymoluber brazili have dark crossbands 2–6 scales wide (mean 3.6) and light interspaces 0.5–5 scales wide (mean 1.6), while in a single specimen of D. apurimacensis the dark crossbands are 1–2 scales wide and the light interspaces 2–3 scales wide. Young specimens of D. dichrous have dark crossbands with similar width to those of D. brazili (1.5–7 scales, mean 3.6), but the pale interspaces are on average narrower (0.5–2.5 scales, mean 0.8).
The hemipenes of Drymoluber brazili tend to have fewer calyces than that of D. dichrous and D. apurimacensis, larger spinulate flounces, and spines in the lobular region. The walls of the sulcus spermaticus are less ornamented. The spines of the asulcate face in general are smaller than those of D. dichrous and D. apurimacensis, especially those most proximal [COSTA et al. 2013] 
CommentSynonymy: Note that Amaral described Drymobius rubriceps as a new species in two independent papers, published in 1923 and 1926.

Variation: juveniles of this species are banded while the adults are uniformly colored. See Figure 19 in COSTA et al. 2013: 378. 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Vital Brazil Mineiro da Campanha, founder and former director of the Instituto (Seroterápico) de Butantan, NOT the species’ distribution in Brazil. 
  • Amaral, A. do 1923. New genera and species of snakes. Proc. New England Zool. Club 8: 85-105 - get paper here
  • Amaral, A. do 1926. Novos gêneros e expécies de ophidios brasileiros. Arch. Mus. Nac. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro 26: 1-27
  • Araújo, S. C. M., Uchôa, L. R., de Sena, F. P., Barbosa, C. U., & de Andrade, E. B. 2022. New record and updated distribution map for Drymoluber brazili (Gomes, 1918)(Serpentes: Colubridae). Cuadernos de Herpetología 36 (1) - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotropica 12 (3): 1-29 - get paper here
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  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • CALDEIRA-COSTA, HENRIQUE; MÁRIO RIBEIRO MOURA, RENATO NEVES FEIO 2013. Taxonomic revision of Drymoluber Amaral, 1930 (Serpentes: Colubridae). Zootaxa 3716 (3): 349–394 - get paper here
  • Campos Nogueira, C. de 2001. New records of Squamate Reptiles in Central Brazilian Cerrado II: Brasília Region. Herpetological Review 32 (4): 285-287 - get paper here
  • CARDOZO-RIBEIRO, SAMUEL & DANIEL OLIVEIRA MESQUITA 2014. Drymoluber brazili (Brazil’s woodland racer): Defensive behaviour. Herpetological Bulletin (129) - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Freitas, M.A.; D.P.F. França; D. Veríssimo. 2012. Distribution extension of Drymoluber brazili (Gomes, 1918) (Serpentes: Colubridae) for the state of Piauí, Brazil. Check List 8(1):168-169 - get paper here
  • Gomes, J.F. 1918. Contribuição para o conhecimento dos ofidios do Brasil. III (1). Mem. Inst. Butantan 1 (1): 57-83 - get paper here
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  • Lehr, E.; Carrillo, N. & Hocking, P. 2004. New species of Drymoluber (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from Southeastern Peru. Copeia 2004 (1): 46-52 - get paper here
  • Madella-Auricchio, Cláudia Renata; Paulo Auricchio Enio Saraiva Soares 2017. Reptile species composition in the Middle Gurguéia and comparison with inventories in the eastern Parnaíba River Basin, State of Piauí, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 57(28): 375-386, - get paper here
  • Montingelli GG, Grazziotin FG, Battilana J, Murphy RW, Zhang Y‐P, Zaher H. 2018. Higher‐level phylogenetic affinities of the Neotropical genus Mastigodryas Amaral, 1934 (Serpentes: Colubridae), species‐group definition and description of a new genus for Mastigodryas bifossatus. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 57: 205– 239 [online 2018, in print 2019] - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro, S. C., I. J. Roberto, D. L. Sales, R. W. Ávila & W. O. Almeida 2012. Amphibians and reptiles from the Araripe bioregion, northeastern Brazil. Salamandra 48 (3): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, M.T. 2003. Herpetofauna da Caatinga. In: I.R. Leal, M. Tabarelli & J.M.C. Silva (eds.). Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga, pp. 181-236. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil.
  • Stuart, L. C. 1932. Studies on neotropical colubrinae I. The taxonomic status of the genus Drymobius Fitzinger. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (236): 1-16 - get paper here
  • Vechio, Francisco Dal; Mauro Teixeira Jr., Renato Sousa Recoder, Miguel Trefault Rodrigues & Hussam Zaher 2016. The herpetofauna of Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões, state of Piauí, Brazil, with a regional species list from an ecotonal area of Cerrado and Caatinga. Biota Neotropica 16(3): e20150105 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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