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Eirenis coronella (SCHLEGEL, 1837)

IUCN Red List - Eirenis coronella - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesEirenis coronella coronella (SCHLEGEL 1837)
Eirenis coronella fennelli ARNOLD 1982
Eirenis coronella ibrahimi SIVAN & WERNER 2003 
Common NamesE: Crowned Dwarf Racer
G: Krönchen-Zwergnatter 
SynonymCalamaria coronella SCHLEGEL 1837: 48
Homalosoma (Pediophis) coronella — FITZINGER 1843
Homalosoma coronella — JAN 1862
Eirenis fasciatus JAN 1863 (fide FRANZEN & GLAW 2007: 251)
Ablabes coronella — BOETTGER 1880: 140
Contia brevicauda NIKOLSKY 1907: 298
Contia coronella — WALL 1908: 802
Contia coronella — BOULENGER 1920
Eirenis coronella coronella — SCHMIDT 1939
Eirenis brevicauda — SCHMIDT 1939
Eirenis coronella fraseri SCHMIDT 1939
Eirenis arabica HAAS 1961
Eirenis arabica — CORKILL & COCHRANE 1966
Eirenis coronella — BARAN 1978
Eirenis (Pediophis) coronella — NAGY et al. 2004
Eirenis coronella — WALLACH et al. 2014: 257
Eirenis coronella — MEIRI et al. 2019

Eirenis coronella fennelli ARNOLD 1982
Eirenis coronella fennelli — SCHÄTTI & GASPERETTI 1994
Eirenis coronella fennelli — MAHLOW et al. 2013

Eirenis coronella ibrahimi SIVAN & WERNER 2003
Eirenis coronella ibrahimi — MAHLOW et al. 2013 
DistributionJordan, Syria, Egypt (Sinai), Iraq, W Iran, N/NE Saudi Arabia, Israel

coronella: Iran, Syria, Israel; Type locality: Syria (restricted by SCHMIDT 1939)

fennelli: Saudi Arabia; Type locality: Khulays, 22°09'N, 39°19'E, 150 m elevation.

ibrahimi: Egypt (Sinai);  
TypesNeotype: HUJ 8410, designated by SIVAN & WERNER (2003)
Holotype: ZSM 1928/0, adult [Eirenis fasciatus]
Holotype: HUJ R 8645, Adult male [ibrahimi]
Holotype: BMNH 1982.224 (A.A. Farrag, 1979) [fennelli]
Syntypes: ZISP [Contia brevicauda] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (fennelli): An apparently isolated population of Eirenis coronella distinguished from those to the north and east by larger adult size, much more robust build when mature and distinctive dorsal pattern: the series of mainly regular narrow, transverse bands across the dorsum that is found elsewhere is broken into staggered blotches or bars. Also the frontal scale is relatively small, its length usually being about equal to its distance from the snout tip and not distinctly longer as is typical of other populations [ARNOLD 1982; see Sivan & Werner 2003 for an alternative diagnosis].

Ontogenetic change: juveniles have stronger (darker) bands and head coloration , which changes from blackish to brown (see Gruber 2009: 82). 
CommentType species: Calamaria coronella Schlegel, 1837 is the type species of the subgenus Pediophis FITZINGER 1843. The subgeneric allocation of this species remains unclear because NAGY et al. (2004) did not have any DNA available for analysis, but they speculate that it probably belongs to Pediophis.

Synonymy: partly after ARNOLD 1982. Homalosoma coronelloides JAN 1862 has been synonymized with this species previously.

Distribution: See map in Sivan & Werner 2003: Fig. 2. Previous authors included Eirenis coronella coronelloides as a subspecies (e.g. GRUBER 2009) which occurs in Turkey and thus would make this a European species. For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013. 
EtymologyEtymology (fennelli): Named after the late Mr and Mrs F. Fennell who collected one of the paratypes and encouraged the collection of more.
E. c. ibrahimi has been named after Dr. Adel A. Ibrahim of the Suez Canal University, North Sinai, Egypt, in recognition of his continual painstaking contribution to the knowledge of the herpetofauna of Sinai. 
  • Al-Quran, S. 2009. The Herpetofauna of the Southern Jordan. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 6 (4): 385-391 [this journal has a dubious record, see]
  • Alshammari, A. M. and Busais, S. M. 2020. Distribution of snakes in Ha’il Province, Saudi Arabia, with an identification key to the species. Russian Journal of Herpetology 27 (1): 5-10. - get paper here
  • ANANJEVA, NATALIA B.; KONSTANTIN D. MILTO, ANDREI V. BARABANOV, EVGENY A. GOLYNSKY 2020. An annotated type catalogue of amphibians and reptiles collected by Nikolay A. Zarudny in Iran and Middle Asia. Zootaxa 4722 (2): 101–128 - get paper here
  • Arnold E N 1982. Reptiles of Saudi Arabia. A new semaphore gecko (Pristurus: Gekkonidae) and a new dwarf snake (Eirenis: Colubridae) from southwestern Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 4: 468-477
  • Bar, Aviad and Guy Haimovitch 2012. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Israel. Pazbar LTD, 246 pp. - get paper here
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  • Baran,I. 1978. Some rare species of snakes from Turkey. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums, Wien 81 [1977]: 261-265 - get paper here
  • Berger-Dell'mour, H. 1986. Zur Herpetofauna des Golan [Syria]. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. in Wien (Ser. B) 87: 59-67. - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. [as O. Böttger] 1880. Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien, Palaestina und Cypern. Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., Frankfurt/M., 1879-1880: 132-219 - get paper here
  • Corkill, N. L. and Cochrane, J. A. 1966. The snakes of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 62 (3): 475-506 (1965) - get paper here
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  • Goldberg, S.R., Schwarz, R., Jamison, S. & Maza, E. 2017. Eirenis coronella (Crowned Dwarf Racer) Reproduction. Herpetological Review 48 (3): 672-673. - get paper here
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  • Gruber, U. 2009. Die Schlangen Europas, 2. Aufl. Kosmos Naturführer, 266 pp.
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  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1907. Reptiles et amphibiens recueillis (part.) M. N. A. Zarudny en Perse en 1903-1904 [in Russian and Latin]. Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci., St. Petersburg 10 [1905]: 260-301 - get paper here
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  • Schmidtler, J.J. & Schmidtler,J. F. 1978. Eine neue Zwergnatter aus der Türkei; mit einer Übersicht über die Gattung Eirenis (Colubridae,Rept.). Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 81: 383-400 - get paper here
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  • Sindaco, R.; Alberto Venchi & Cristina Grieco 2013. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Snakes of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia, with an Update to Volume 1. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 543 pp. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Riccardo Nincheri, Benedetto Lanza 2014. Catalogue of Arabian reptiles in the collections of the “La Specola” Museum, Florence. Scripta Herpetologica. Studies on Amphibians and Reptiles in honour of Benedetto Lanza: pp. 137-164 - get paper here
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