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Enyalioides heterolepis (BOCOURT, 1874)

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Higher TaxaHoplocercidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Bocourt's Dwarf Iguana
S: Iguana enana 
SynonymEnyalus heterolepis BOCOURT 1874: 1
Enyalius heterolepis — GÜNTHER 1885: 56
Enyalioides heterolepis — BOULENGER 1885: 114
Enyalioides insulae BARBOUR 1905: 100
Enyalioides Mocquardi DESPAX 1911
Enyalioides heterolepis — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 114
Enyalioides heterolepis — KÖHLER 2000: 81
Enyalioides heterolepis — TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2011 
DistributionNW Ecuador, Colombia (incl. Valle del Cauca, Chocó), Panama (Coclé etc.)

Type locality: Veragua, Panama.  
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 4067
Lectotype: MNHN (= MHNP) 4067 (Guibe, 1954) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Enyalioides can be distinguished from Hoplocercus by having a laterally compressed or rounded (rather than depressed) tail that is longer than the body (i.e., tail length > SVL). Enyalioides also differs from Hop- locercus and Morunasaurus in having pointed, conical scales on dorsal surface of head and gular region; raised scales posterior to the superciliaries; keeled dorsal scales; a continuous vertebral crest formed by large, trihedral or conical scales (except E. palpebralis, in which most specimens have a nuchal gap in the vertebral crest); and one or more enlarged pretympanic scales (except E. heterolepis). Enyalioides can be further distinguished from Morunasaurus by having a parietal eye [from TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2011]. ETHERIDGE 1969 presents a comparison of Enyalius and Enyalioides.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from other species of Enyalioides by having scattered, projecting, tet- rahedral large scales on dorsum, flanks, and hind limbs, which are conspicuous in juveniles and adults of both sexes. The only other species of Enyalioides with scattered, projecting dorsal scales is E. cofanorum, which differs from E. heterolepis in lacking projecting scales on the hind limbs [from TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2011]. 
CommentSynonymy that of PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Type species: Enyalus heterolepis BOCOURT 1874 is the type species of the genus Enyalioides BOULENGER 1885.

Key: TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2015: 126 provide a key to all species of the Hoplocercinae, including the species of Enyalioides. 
  • Abuys, A. 1982. De slangen van Suriname, deel III: De familie Colubridae (algemene gegevens en het genus Chironius) / The snakes of Surinam, part III: The family Colubridae (General data and the genus Chironius). Litteratura Serpentium 2 (5): 226-245 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. in: Bangs, Outram; Brown, Wilmont W.; Thayer, John E.; Barbour, Thomas 1905. The Vertebrata of Gorgona Island, Colombia. 1 Introduction. Mammalia. 2. Physical aspect and climate; Fauna. 3 Aves. 4 Reptilia; Amphibia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 46 (5): 87-102 - get paper here
  • Bocourt,M.F. 1874. Deux notes sur quelques sauriens de l'Amérique tropicale. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Paris (5) 19 (4): 1-5 [1873] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1880. Reptiles et Batraciens recueillis par M. Emile de Ville dans les Andes de l'équateur. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 5: 41-48 - get paper here
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  • Carvajal-Cogollo, J.E.; L.E. Rojas-Murcia. & G. Cárdenas-Arévalo 2020. Reptiles del Caribe colombiano/ Reptiles of the Colombian Caribbean. Tunja: Editorial UPTC, 268 pp. - get paper here
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
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  • Cortés Gómez, Angela María; Anyelet Valencia Aguilar, Diana Marcela Torres Domínguez, Lina María García Calderón, Diego Fernando Villaquirán Martínez, Andrea del Pilar Cáceres Franco, Fernando Castro Herrera 2010. Guía de los anfibios y reptiles. Área en conservación de la microcuenca Quebrada Pericos. [Valle de Cauca, Colombia]. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca, Santiago de Cali: CVC, 37 pp. - get paper here
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  • Eisenberg, Tobias and Nikola Pantchev 2010. Notes on body size and natural history of Enyalioides heterolepis (Bocourt 1874) in its northernmost population in Panama. Herpetological Bulletin (111) - get paper here
  • Etheridge, R. 1969. A review of the Iguanid lizard genus Enyalius. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 18 (8): 233-260 - get paper here
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  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
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  • Pinto, M.A., Calderón, M.L., Medina, G.F. & Méndez, M.A. 2020. Herpetofauna from two municipalities of southwestern Colombia. Biota Colombiana 21(1): 41-57. DOI: 10.21068/c2020.v21n01a04 - get paper here
  • Ríos, E.E.; C.F. Hurtado P., J.T. Rengifo M., and F. Castro Herrera. 2011. LAGARTOS EN COMUNIDADES NATURALES DE DOS LOCALIDADES EN LA REGIÓN DEL CHOCÓ DE COLOMBIA. Herpetotropicos 5 (2): 85-92 - get paper here
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  • Torres-Carvajal O, Venegas PJ, de Queiroz K 2015. Three new species of woodlizards (Hoplocercinae, Enyalioides) from northwestern South America. ZooKeys 494: 107-132. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.494.8903 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, Omar; RICHARD ETHERIDGE & KEVIN DE QUEIROZ 2011. A systematic revision of Neotropical lizards in the clade Hoplocercinae (Squamata: Iguania). Zootaxa 2752: 1–44 - get paper here
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  • Venegas PJ, Torres-Carvajal O, Duran V, de Queiroz K 2013. Two sympatric new species of woodlizards (Hoplocercinae, Enyalioides) from Cordillera Azul National Park in northeastern Peru. ZooKeys 277: 69–90. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.277.3594 - get paper here
  • Wiens, John J. and Richard E. Etheridge 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Hoplocercid lizards: coding and combining meristic, morphometric, and polymorphic data using step matrices. Herpetologica 59 (3): 375-398 - get paper here
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