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Euspondylus paxcorpus DOAN & ADAMS, 2015

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymEuspondylus paxcorpus DOAN & ADAMS 2015 
DistributionPeru (Junin)

Type locality: Ulcuran, district of Ulcumayo, province of Junín, region of Junín, Peru; 10° 57.954’ S, 75° 49.753’W; 3341 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: UTA R-62329, an adult male (Fig. 1); collected on 8 November 2013 by Esther Ulloa Ribera.
Paratypes. Twelve paratypes (7 male, 2 female, 2 juvenile) are from the Ulcumayo district, province Junín, region Junín, Peru. UTA R-62308, an adult female, from Villac, 3741 m, collected by Franklin Jeferson Malpartida Ramos, 19 September 2013; UTA R-62309, an adult male, from Yapacmarka, 3754 m, by Frank Hever Malpartida Ramos, 20 September 2013; UTA R-62310, a subadult male, from Hachulan, 3581 m, by Herlis Malpartida Alderete, 5 November 2013; UTA R-62312, a subadult male, and UTA R-62313, a juvenile, from Huaylla, 3615 m, by Herlis Malpartida Alderete, 5 November 2013; UTA R-62315, a female, and UTA R-62317, a male, from La Libertad, 3523 m, by Heraclio Ulloa Condor, 6 November 2013; UTA R-62321, a male, from Matamayo, 3508 m, by Herlis Malpartida Alderete, 6 November 2013; UTA R-62325, a male, from Yananauwi, 3280 m, by Anibel Malpartida Arias, 7 November 2013; UTA R-62328, a juvenile male, from Ulcuran, 3341 m, by Esther Ulloa Ribera, 8 November 2013; UTA R-62330, a subadult male, from Ulcumayo, 3610 m, by Josben Chuco Carhuapoma, 9 November 2013. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. (1) prefrontals present with long suture (Doan & Cusi 2014); (2) supraoculars four, with first supraocular/first supraciliary fusion; (3) occipitals 5–7, usually irregularly shaped; (4) palpebral eye-disc made up of a single, undivided, transparent scale; (5) supralabials five; (6) infralabials five; (7) dorsal body scales rectangular with rounded edges and low rounded keel, in transverse rows only; (8) dorsal scale rows in a longitudinal count 40–45; (9) dorsal rows in a transverse count at midbody 22–28; (10) a continuous series of small lateral scales separating dorsals from ventrals, 2–6 scales wide; (11) gular scale rows eight; (12) ventral rows in a longitudinal count 23–25; (13) ventral rows in a transverse count 12; (14) femoral pores per leg in males 8–12, femoral pores per leg in females 5–9; (15) preanal pores absent; (16) subdigital lamellae on Toe IV 19–22; (17) in preservative, dorsal and lateral surfaces dark brown with no stripes or ocelli; (18) in life, three indistinct dorsal stripes and a continuous series of white spots (ocelli) present on the lateral surface of the body.
Euspondylus paxcorpus may be distinguished from all species of Petracola Doan & Castoe, Proctoporus, and Riama Gray (except Proctoporus chasqui and P. xestus (Uzzell)) by the presence of prefrontal scales. It may be distinguished from other species in the genus Euspondylus by the following character states (condition for E. paxcorpus in parentheses). Euspondylus acutirostris (Peters) and E. monsfumus Mijares-Urrutia, Señaris & Arends: longitudinal ventral count 26–33 (23–25). Euspondylus auyanensis Myers, Rivas & Jadin: palpebral eye disc divided (entire) and dorsal coloration of squarish markings covering entire dorsum (plain in preservative, with dorsolateral stripes in life). Euspondylus caideni Köhler, E. nellycarrilae Köhler & Lehr, and E. spinalis (Boulenger): hexagonal or subhexagonal dorsal scales (rectangular). Euspondylus nellycarrilae: venter dirty white in preservative (uniform dark blue). Euspondylus spinalis: three supraocular scales (four). Euspondylus guentheri (O’Shaughnessy) and E. maculatus Tschudi: palpebral eye disc divided (entire), dorsal scales smooth or wrinkled (usually keeled), and longitudinal dorsal count 32–37 (40–45). Euspondylus josyi Köhler: longitudinal dorsal count 29–35 (40–45) and longitudinal ventral count 18 (23–25). Euspondylus rahmi (De Grijs): anteriormost supraocular not fused with anteriormost supraciliary (fused) and longitudinal dorsal count 49–54 (40–45). Euspondylus simonsii Boulenger: longitudinal dorsal count 33–39 (40–45) and no enlarged thenar scales (two enlarged thenar scales). Euspondylus oreades Chávez, Siu-Ting, Duran & Venegas: longitudinal ventral count 20–22 (23–25), sexual dimorphism in dorsal and ventral coloration (no sexual dimorphism in coloration), and in life males with black flecks on each dorsal scale and distinct black dorsolateral stripes separating lighter from darker regions (no black flecks on dorsal scales and dorsolateral stripes, if present, not distinct and located inside lighter scale region). Proctoporus chasqui: yellowish or reddish venter in life (white or bluish venter) and ventral scales in a longitudinal count 19–22 (23–25). Proctoporus xestus: a single large elongate subocular scale (several small subocular scales) and smooth dorsal scales (usually keeled). 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet paxcorpus is a Latin noun that honors the Peace Corps, or Cuerpo de Paz in Spanish. The lizards were discovered and collected by a Peace Corps Volunteer during his service in Peru to promote community-based environmental management. 
  • DOAN, TIFFANY M. & GRANT ADAMS 2015. A novel species of Euspondylus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes Mountains of central Peru. Zootaxa 4033 (1): 129–136 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
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