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Exila nigropalmata (ANDERSSON, 1918)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae (Mabuyini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Black Mabuya 
SynonymMabuia nigropalmata ANDERSSON 1918: 8
Mabuya nigropalmata — BURT & BURT 1933: 86 (part)
Mabuya nigropalmata — PETERS et al. 1970: 200
Mabuya nigropalmata — GREER & NUSSBAUM 2000
Mabuya nigropalmata — MAUSFELD et al. 2002
Exila nigropalmata — HEDGES & CONN 2012: 85
Exila nigropalmata — RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR & AMARAL 2016 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Curuca), Bolivia (La Paz: San Fermin), Peru [Gordo et al. 2006]

Type locality: Rio Curucá, Brazil and San Fermin, Bolivia.  
TypesLectotype: NRM 23258 (formerly 3259), San Fermin, NW Bolivia, collected N. Holmgren, 1904. Designation by Miralles et al. (2012). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Species in this genus are characterized by (1) frontoparietals, one, (2) supraciliaries, five, (3) supraoculars, four, as reported in original description (Andersson 1918), but supraoculars were not reported by Miralles et al. (2009), (4) prefrontal contact, present, (5) parietal contact, present, (6) rows of nuchals, 2–3, (7) dorsals + ventrals, undetermined (46–58 dorsals and 30–47 ventrals as reported by Miralles et al., 2009a, but those counts were made using a different counting method than used here), (8) total lamellae, not reported, (9) a dark middorsal stripe, absent, (10) dark dorsolateral stripes, absent, (11) a dark lateral stripe, present, and (12) dark ventral striping, absent. Body size was not reported by Miralles et al. (2009), but Andersson (1918) noted in the original description that the largest specimen was 60 mm SVL (Table 2).

Having a single (fused) frontoparietal separates Exila from all others except Notomabuya and Panopa (single frontoparietal) and Aspronema (1–2 frontoparietals). Contact between the prefrontals separates Exila from Brasiliscincus, Capitellum, Notomabuya, and Psychosaura (no contact) and from Alinea, Aspronema, Copeoglossum, Mabuya, Manciola, Maracaiba, and Marisora (contact only rarely). From Aspronema, Brasiliscincus, Manciola, Orosaura, Panopa, Psychosaura, and Spondylurus, it is distinguished by the absence of dark dorsolateral stripes. It differs from Brasiliscincus, Capitellum, Copeoglossum, Manciola, Maracaiba, Notomabuya, Orosaura, and Varzea by having more than one pair of nuchals. 
CommentDistribution: Mabuya nigropalmata described from Venezuela by several authors correspond to M. crozaiti. Mabuya nigropalmata has also been reported from from Para (Brazil), Peru and from the Guianas, although there seem to be no records from these localities.

Type Species: Mabuya nigropalmata Andersson, 1918:8 is the type species of the genus Exila HEDGES & CONN 2012.

Phylogenetics: The phylogenetic position of Exila has not yet been firmly established among the various generic clades (e.g., Copeoglossum, Spondylurus). 
EtymologyThe generic name (Exila) is a feminine noun derived from the Latin adjective exilis (lean), alluding to the thin body shape and unusually low number of midbody scale rows in this species (24–28). 
  • Andersson, L. G. 1918. New lizards from South America. Collected by Nils Holmgren and A. Roman. Arkiv för Zoologi 11 (16): 1—9 - get paper here
  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Burt, C. E., and M. D. Burt 1933. A preliminary check list of the lizards of South America. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 28: 1-104.
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotropica 13 (4): 269-283
  • Dirksen, L. & De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215 - get paper here
  • Greer,A.E. & NUSSBAUM,R.A. 2000. New character useful in the systematics of the scincid lizard genus Mabuya. Copeia 2000 (2): 615-618 - get paper here
  • Harvey, M.B.; Agyayo, R. & Mirelles, A. 2008. Redescription and biogeography of Mabuya cochabambae Dunn with comments on Bolivian congeners (Lacertilia: Scincidae). Zootaxa 1828: 43–56 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244
  • Horton, D.R. 1973. A new species of Mabuya (Lacertilia: Scincidae) from Venezuela. Journal of Herpetology 7 (2): 75-77 - get paper here
  • Mausfeld, Patrick; Andreas SCHMITZ; Wolfgang BÖHME; Bernhard MISOF; Davor VRCIBRADIC; Carlos Frederico Duarte ROCHA 2002. Phylogenetic Affinities of Mabuya atlantica Schmidt, 1945, Endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha (Brazil): Necessity of Partitioning the Genus Mabuya Fitzinger, 1826 (Scincidae: Lygosominae). Zool. Anz. 241: 281–293 - get paper here
  • Miralles, Aurélien 2006. A new species of Mabuya (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae) from the Caribbean Island of San Andrés, with a new interpretation of nuchal scales: a character of taxonomic importance. The Herpetological Journal 16 (1):1-7. - get paper here
  • MIRALLES, AURÉLIEN; GILSON RIVAS FUENMAYOR, CÉLINE BONILLO, WALTER E. SCHARGEL, TITO BARROS, JUAN E. GARCÍA-PEREZ, CÉSAR L. BARRIO-AMORÓS 2009. Molecular systematics of Caribbean skinks of the genus Mabuya (Reptilia, Scincidae), with descriptions of two new species from Venezuela. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 598-616 - get paper here
  • Moravec J., Aparicio J. 2004. Notes on the herpetofauna of Nacebe (Provincia Abuna, Departamento Pando, Bolivia). Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 173 (1-4): 13-28
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Rabosky, Daniel L.; Rudolf von May, Michael C. Grundler and Alison R. Davis Rabosky 2019. The Western Amazonian Richness Gradient for Squamate Reptiles: Are There Really Fewer Snakes and Lizards in Southwestern Amazonian Lowlands? Diversity 11: 199; doi:10.3390/d11100199 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A., SILVANA AMARAL 2016. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae. Zootaxa 4205 (5): 401–430 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
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