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Gekko horsfieldii (GRAY, 1827)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Horsfield's Flying Gecko, Horsfield's Parachute Gecko
G: Horsfields Faltengecko 
SynonymPteropleura horsfieldii GRAY 1827: 56
Platydactylus horsfieldii — FITZINGER 1843: 101
Ptychozoon homalocephala GRAY 1845: 164 (not of CREVELD fide STEJNEGER 1907)
Ptychozoon homalocephala — STOLICZKA 1870: 159
Ptychozoon horsfieldii — MÜLLER 1892: 209
Ptychozoon horsfieldii — STEJNEGER 1907: 170
Ptychozoon horsfieldii — DE ROOIJ 1915: 61
Ptychozoon horsfieldi — SMITH 1935: 119
Ptychozoon horsfeldi — TAYLOR 1963: 814 (in error)
Ptychozoon horsfieldii — KLUGE 1993
Ptychozoon horsfieldii — RÖSLER 2000: 107
Ptychozoon horsfieldii — GRISMER 2011
Ptychozoon horsfieldii — GRISMER & QUAH 2019
Gekko (Ptychozoon) horsfieldii — WOOD et al. 2019
Gekko (Ptychozoon) horsfieldii — WOOD et al. 2020 
DistributionIndia (Mizoram), Myanmar (= Burma), Thailand, Malaysian Penisnula, Indonesia (Natuna, Borneo: Brunei, Sarawak; Sumatra), Singapore

Type locality: Singapore (STEJNEGER 1907; see comment).  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: BMNH 1946.8.25.86 (and possibly additional specimens). 
DiagnosisHead oviform, snout longer than the distance from the eye to the ear-opening; forehead concave; ear-opening triangular. Head with small equal granules. Rostral large, quadrangular; nostril bordered by the rostral, the first labial and three nasals; the upper pair of nasals separated by a larger scale; above the labials two other large scales on each side. Eleven upper and as many lower labials; mental small, triangular; four chin-shields on each side, inner forming a long suture with its fellow. Body depressed, with small granules above, no tubercles; a broad membrane on the sides. Throat granular; ventral scales larger, cycloid, imbricate. Male with 7 12 praeanal pores in an angular series, separated by 8 scales from 9 14 femoral pores on each side. Tail depressed, annulate, the sides bordered by a series of dermal lobes, the tip not ending in a broad flap; the lobes directed somewhat obliquely; upper caudal scales granular, lower transversely enlarged. Limbs depressed; digits strong, entirely webbed; the fore limbs bordered by a broad dermal expansion, the hind limbs on the posterior side of the femur and on both of the tibia (de Rooij 1915: 61).

Coloration: Brown above with broad, lighter cross bands, edged with a dark wavy line; a broad dark streak from the eye to the shoulder, sometimes broken up into round spots. Tail with dark and light bands. Lower parts yellowish, uniform or spotted with brown (de Rooij 1915: 61).

Size: Length of head and body 80 mm.; tail 75 mm (de Rooij 1915: 61). 
CommentSTEJNEGER 1907 also mentions “India” as one type locality. According to I. DAS (pers. comm.) P. horsfieldii does not occur in India, nor in Japan (fide NAKAMURA & UENO 1963) although it may have been introduced to the latter (occurs on Okinawa fide WERMUTH 1965: 154). 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Thomas Horsfield (1773-1859), American naturalist and physician. He worked in Java (1796) and for the East India Company and blater ecame a friend of Sir Thomas Raffies. 
References
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M. 1999. New species of parachute gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: genus Ptychozoon) from northeastern Thailand and central Vietnam. Copeia 1999 (4): 990-1001 - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M., John W. Ferner and Arvin C. Diesmos. 1997. Definition of the Philippine Parachute Gecko, Ptychozoon intermedium Taylor 1915 (Reptilia: Squamata: gekkonidae): Redescription, designation of a neotype, and comparisons with related species. Herpetologica 53 (3): 357-373. - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M.; Cameron D. Siler, L. Lee Grismer, Indraneil Das, Jimmy A. McGuire 2013. Phylogeny and cryptic diversification in Southeast Asian flying geckos. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (2):351-361 [2012] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Das , I. 2004. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Borneo
  • Das, I. & Vijayakumar, S.P. 2009. New species of Ptychozoon (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from the Nicobar Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Zootaxa 2095: 8–20 - get paper here
  • DAS, INDRANEIL & HANS HAZEBROEK. 2021. GEKKO HORSFIELDII (Horsfield’s Flying Gecko). PREDATION. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 407–408. - get paper here
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1827. A Synopsis of the Genera of Saurian Reptiles in which some new Genera are indicated, and the others reviewed by actual Examination. Philos. Mag., London, 2 (2): 54-58. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. JR. WOOD, MYINT KYAW THURA, MARTA S. GRISMER, RAFE M. BROWN, BRYAN L. STUART 2018. Geographically structured genetic variation in Ptychozoon lionotum (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and a new species from an isolated volcano in Myanmar. Zootaxa 4514 (2): 202–214 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Kurniawan, Nia; Noviati Roziah, Muhammad Alif Fauzi, and Agung Sih Kurnianto 2017. From little known area to the extinction race: A survey of herpetofauna in Prevab, Kutai National Park (KNP), Indonesia. AIP Conference Proceedings 1908, 020002 - get paper here
  • Lalremsanga, H.T., L. Khawlhring & Lalrotluanga 2010. Three additional lizard (Squamata: Sauria) records for Mizoram, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(2): 718-720 - get paper here
  • Macát, Zdenek; Hanyrol H. Ahmad Sah, and T. Ulmar Grafe 2016. Attempted predation of Ptychozoon horsfieldii (Squamata: Gekkonidae) by Chrysopelea paradisi (Serpentes: Colubridae) in Borneo. Phyllomedusa 15 (1): 65-67 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. 1982. Die Gattung Ptychozoon, Teil 2 - Mit einem Bestimmungsschlüssel für die fünf Arten. Sauria 4 (3): 5-12 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. 1982. Die Gattung Ptychozoon, Teil 1 - Mit einem Bestimmungsschlüssel für die fünf Arten. Sauria 4 (2): 11-17 - get paper here
  • Müller, F. 1895. Siebenter Nachtrag zum Katalog der herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Museums. Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel 10: 195-215 [1892] - get paper here
  • Nakamura K & Uéno SI 1963. Japanese Reptiles and Amphibians in Colour [in Japanese]. Hoikusha, Osaka
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Stoliczka, F. 1870. Observations on some Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 39: 134-228. - get paper here
  • SUMONTHA, MONTRI; OLIVIER S.G. PAUWELS, KIRATI KUNYA, CHAIWAT LIMLIKHITAKSORN, SIRICHAI RUKSUE, APIRAT TAOKRATOK, MICHEL ANSERMET & LAWAN CHANHOME 2012. A new species of Parachute Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: genus Ptychozoon) from Kaeng Krachan National Park, western Thailand. Zootaxa 3513: 68–78 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 44: 687-1077. - get paper here
  • Wood Jr, Perry L.; Xianguang Guo, Scott L. Travers, Yong-Chao Su, Karen V. Olson, Aaron M. Bauer, L. Lee Grismer, Cameron D. Siler, Robert G. Moyle, Michael J. Andersen, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Parachute geckos free fall into synonymy: Gekko phylogeny, and a new subgeneric classification, inferred from thousands of ultraconserved elements. bioRxiv 717520 - get paper here
  • Wood, P. L., Guo, X., Travers, S. L., Su, Y. C., Olson, K. V., Bauer, A. M., Grismer, L. L., Siler, C. D., Moyle, R. G., Andersen, M. J. and Brown, R. M. 2020. Parachute geckos free fall into synonymy: Gekko phylogeny, and a new subgeneric classification, inferred from thousands of ultraconserved elements. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 146: 106731 [corrigendum: MPE 164: 107255] - get paper here
 
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