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Gekko lionotum (ANNANDALE, 1905)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Smooth-backed Gliding Gecko, Burmese Flying Gecko, Burmese Parachute Gecko
G: Birma-Faltengecko 
SynonymPtychozoon homalocephalum var. lionotum ANNANDALE 1905
Ptychozoon lionatum [sic] — TAYLOR 1963: 807
Ptychozoon lionatum — HEYER & PONGSAPIPATANA 1970
Ptychozoon lionotum — KLUGE 1993
Ptychozoon lionotum — RÖSLER 1995: 150
Ptychozoon lionotum — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 247
Ptychozoon lionotum — COX et al. 1998: 81
Ptychozoon lionotum — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 132
Ptychozoon lionatum [sic] — GRISMER et al. 2007
Ptychozoon lionotum — RÖSLER 2018: 10
Ptychozoon lionotum — GRISMER et al. 2019: 186
Gekko (Ptychozoon) lionotum — WOOD et al. 2019
Gekko (Ptychozoon) lionotum — WOOD et al. 2020 
DistributionS Myanmar (= Burma); NE Laos, India (Mizoram), Bangladesh

Type locality: Pegu [administrative district, Myanmar (= Burma)]. Restricted to Hpa Lon, Taikkyi Township, Yangon (north) District, Yangon Division, Myanmar (17.44552°N 95.91485°E, 20 m in elevation, by Grismer et al. 2019: 186 and Fig. 1.  
TypesSyntype: ZSI 2601–02 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Ptychozoon lionotum differs from all other species of Ptychozoon by having the following unique combination of characters: a maximum SVL of 95.9 mm; supranasals not in contact; 7–9 supralabials; 9–11 infral- abials; infra-auricular cutaneous flap present; absent to weak supra-auricular ridge; no dorsal or caudal tubercles; imbricate parachute support scales on dorsal surface of patagia; no prominently raised ridges on ventral surface of patagia; 73–81 midbody dorsal scales; 35–38 ventral scales; an emargination between the pre-antebrachial flap and digit I; no enlarged femoral scales; 20–22 pore-bearing precloacal scales in males; 23 or 24 enlarged precloa- cal scales; five rows of enlarged post-precloacal scales; 16 or 17 transverse subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; slightly enlarged dorsal caudal scales forming intermittent whorls weak to absent; approximately 29–34 scales across the widest portion of the caudal flap; distal lobes fusing to form a short, narrow, caudal flap; edges of caudal flap smooth; caudal lobes angled posteriorly; caudal lobes showing minimal posterior reduction in size; postorbital striping variable; four dark body bands between limb insertions; and irregularly shaped, white, vertebral markings (Tables 4, 5, 9, Grismer et al. 2019). 
CommentDistribution: populations from Thailand (Ramri, Phang Nga), Vietnam, Cambodia, West Malaysia (Johor: Pulau Sibu) have been split off as other species. See Grismer et al. 2019 for details. 
  • Annandale, N. 1905. Additions to the Collection of Oriental Snakes in the Indian Museum, Part 3. J. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, new Ser., 1 (8): 208-214 [1906] - get paper here
  • Annandale, N. 1905. Notes on some Oriental geckos in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, with descriptions of new tons. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 15:26-32 - get paper here
  • Barts, M. & Hulbert, F. 2004. Die Geckos der Welt. Draco 5 (18): 4-17 - get paper here
  • Bhuiyan, M. R. K., Rabbe, M. F., Jaman, M. F., Das, A. K., & Mohsanin, S. 2020. A new country record of Smooth-backed Gliding Gecko Gekko lionotum (Annan-dale, 1905)(Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Bangladesh. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 12(15), 17161-17164 - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M. 1999. New species of parachute gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: genus Ptychozoon) from northeastern Thailand and central Vietnam. Copeia 1999 (4): 990-1001 - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M., John W. Ferner and Arvin C. Diesmos. 1997. Definition of the Philippine Parachute Gecko, Ptychozoon intermedium Taylor 1915 (Reptilia: Squamata: gekkonidae): Redescription, designation of a neotype, and comparisons with related species. Herpetologica 53 (3): 357-373. - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M.; Cameron D. Siler, L. Lee Grismer, Indraneil Das, Jimmy A. McGuire 2013. Phylogeny and cryptic diversification in Southeast Asian flying geckos. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (2):351-361 [2012] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das, I. & Vijayakumar, S.P. 2009. New species of Ptychozoon (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from the Nicobar Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Zootaxa 2095: 8–20 - get paper here
  • Dring J C M 1979. Amphibians and reptiles from northern Trengganu, Malaysia, with descriptions of two new geckos: Cnemaspis and Cyrtodactylus. Bulletin of the British Museum (NATURAL HISTORY) ZOOLOGY 34 (5): 181-241 - get paper here
  • Geissler, P., Hartmann, T., Ihlow, F., Neang T., Seng R., Wagner, P. & Bohme, W. 2019. Herpetofauna of the Phnom Kulen National Park, northern Cambodia—An annotated checklist. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2019 (1): 40–63 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. JR. WOOD, MYINT KYAW THURA, MARTA S. GRISMER, RAFE M. BROWN, BRYAN L. STUART 2018. Geographically structured genetic variation in Ptychozoon lionotum (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and a new species from an isolated volcano in Myanmar. Zootaxa 4514 (2): 202–214 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD JR., JESSE L. GRISMER, EVAN S. H. QUAH, NEANG THY, SOMPHOUTHONE PHIMMACHAK, NIANE SIVONGXAY, SENGVILAY SEATEUN, BRYAN L. STUART, CAMERON B. SILER, DANIEL G. MULCAHY, TASHITSO ANAMZA & RAFE M. BROWN 2019. Geographic structure of genetic variation in the Parachute Gecko Ptychozoon lionotum Annandale, 1905 across Indochina and Sundaland with descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 4638 (2): 151–198 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
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  • Grossmann,W. & Tillack,F. 2001. Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna des Khao Lak, Phang Nga, thailändische Halbinsel. Teil III: Ergebnisse der Jahre 1999 und 2000. Sauria 23 (3): 21-34 - get paper here
  • Heyer, W. R., and S. Pongsapipatana. 1970. Gliding speeds of Ptychozoon lionatum (Reptilia: Gekkonidae)and Chrysopelea ornata (Reptilia: Colubridae). Herpetologica 26(3): 317-319 - get paper here
  • Lalremsanga, H.T., L. Khawlhring & Lalrotluanga 2010. Three additional lizard (Squamata: Sauria) records for Mizoram, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(2): 718-720 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. 1982. Die Gattung Ptychozoon, Teil 2 - Mit einem Bestimmungsschlüssel für die fünf Arten. Sauria 4 (3): 5-12 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. 1982. Die Gattung Ptychozoon, Teil 1 - Mit einem Bestimmungsschlüssel für die fünf Arten. Sauria 4 (2): 11-17 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • MANTHEY, U. & S. MANTHEY 2017. Amphibien und Reptilien von Laos – Ein Reisebericht – Teil 1: Phou Khao Khouay NBCA (Februar 1998). Sauria 39 (2): 35-55 - get paper here
  • Nabhitabhata, J., T. Chan-ard and Y. Chuaynkern 2000. Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bankok. 152pp.
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  • Rafe M. Brown, Cameron D. Siler, Indraneil Das, Yong Min 2012. Testing the phylogenetic affinities of Southeast Asia’s rarest geckos: Flap-legged geckos (Luperosaurus), Flying geckos (Ptychozoon) and their relationship to the pan-Asian genus Gekko. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63: 915-921 - get paper here
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  • Wood, P. L., Guo, X., Travers, S. L., Su, Y. C., Olson, K. V., Bauer, A. M., Grismer, L. L., Siler, C. D., Moyle, R. G., Andersen, M. J. and Brown, R. M. 2020. Parachute geckos free fall into synonymy: Gekko phylogeny, and a new subgeneric classification, inferred from thousands of ultraconserved elements. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 146: 106731 [corrigendum: MPE 164: 107255] - get paper here
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