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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPortuguese: Lagarto-da-Cauda-Verde 
SynonymCnemidophorus littoralis ROCHA, BAMBERG ARAÚJO, VRCIBRADIC & MAMEDE DA COSTA 2000
Cnemidophorus ocellifer — ROCHA & BERGALLO 1997
Ameivula litoralis [sic] — HARVEY et al. 2012
Ameivula littoralis — FELDMAN et al. 2015
Glaucomastix littoralis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 
DistributionSE Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)

Type locality: restinga of Barra de Maricá (22°57’ S, 43°50’ W), municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro state.  
TypesHolotype: MNRJ 6536 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): species of Glaucomastix are characterized by the absence of preanal spurs, presence of granules in the supraorbital semicircles, less than 40 femoral pores, first superciliary divided, absence of an opercular projection of skin in the anterodorsal margin of ear-opening, a light vertebral stripe, and a bright bluish-green tail (see Arias et al., 2011b). Glaucomastix can be distinguished from Ameivula in having a light vertebral stripe, a bright bluish-green tail and divided first superciliary (Arias et al., 2011; Harvey et al., 2012).

Diagnosis (species). A moderate-sized Cnemidophorus species(up to 82 mm SVL in adult males and 75 mm SVL in adult females), bisexual (only females in C. nativo), characterized by a narrow, straight, white middorsal (vertebral) line (a pair of diffuse, wavy, thin white paravertebral lines in C. ocellifer, a broad light salmon stripe, straight from nape to midbody and changing to wavy from midbody to tail base in C. nativo; Fig. 2); an irregular (sometimes broken) dorsolateral white stripe on either side of (and as narrow as) the vertebral line (two diffuse white lines in C. ocellifer, stripes broader, vivid white and well defined in C. nativo; Fig. 2); between the vertebral and the dorsolateral lines, the dorsal field is black (in juveniles and young adults) or gray (in large adults), with a longitudinal sequence of white dashes or spots which can sometimes give the appearance of a dashed line [no dorsal dashes or spots in the dorsal fields of either C. ocellifer or C. nativo (but C. ocellifer sometimes with indefinite, subtle spots); Fig. 2]; one irregular white lateral stripe on each side of body, and of the same width as the dorsolateral ones (similar to C. ocellifer,lateral stripes broad and straight in C. nativo); between the dorsolateral and lateral lines, the field is solid black, sometimes with one to three tiny white dots on the posterior third of the body (a row of rounded white or pale blue spots in C. ocellifer; dark field solid black in C. nativo; Fig. 2); tail predominantly bright blue-green (brown to olivaceous in C. ocellifer,also blue-green in C. nativo); dorsal surface of hind limbs black mottled with blue-green (brown with black mottling in C. ocellifer,gray to olive-brown with black freckling in C. nativo); supraocular granules not extending beyond the posterior half of the second supraocular, with that scale always in contact with frontal (second supraocular totally separated from frontal by supraocular granules in C. ocellifer, granules also not extending beyond the posterior half of the second supraocular in C. nativo); nostril usually in suture between anterior and posterior nasal plates (same as in C. ocellifer, nostril completely inside anterior nasal in C. nativo); frontonasal frequently divided [frontonasal sometimes divided in C. ocellifer (undivided in all specimens examined from Salvador) and consistently not divided in C. nativo]; 12-20 (usually 16 or 17) femoral pores along each thigh (7-12 in C. ocellifer and 11-13 in C. nativo); usually 10 longitudinal rows of ventral scales (always eight in C. ocelliferand C. nativo); 30-39 transverse rows of ventral scales (29-32 in C. nativo; 27-30 among examined specimens of C. ocellifer). (Rocha et al. 2000)

CommentGroup: this species belongs to the ocellifer group, distinguished by the presence of granules in the supraorbital semicircles, a lower number of femoral pores (less than 40), and the absence of preanal spurs (Rocha et al., 2000, Colli et al., 2003).

Type species: Cnemidophorus littoralis ROCHA, BAMBERG ARAÚJO, VRCIBRADIC & MAMEDE DA COSTA 2000 is the type species of the genus Glaucomastix GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (but Glaucomastic FITZINGER 1843, fide TUCKER et al. 2016; however this name doesn’t seem to be mentioned by Fitzinger 1843). 
EtymologyGlaucomastix is a composite name derived from the Greek adjectives “glaukos”, meaning blue-green, and “mastix”, meaning whip. The name alludes to the bluish-green tail that characterizes this group of lizards.

Named after the habitat of the species, coastal sand dunes (lat. littoralis). Not mentioned in REEDER et al. (2002) as littoralis but these authors discuss the position of ocellifer to some extent. 
  • ARIAS, FEDERICO; CELSO MORATO DE CARVALHO, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES & HUSSAM ZAHER 2011. Two new species of Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) of the C. ocellifer group, from Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3022: 1–21
  • Colli, G.R. et al. 2003. A critically endangered new species of Cnemidophorus (Squamata, Teiidae) from a Cerrado enclave in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetologica 59 (1): 76-88 - get paper here
  • Colli, Guarino R.; Lilian G. Giugliano, Daniel O. Mesquita, and Frederico G. R. França 2009. A NEW SPECIES OF CNEMIDOPHORUS FROM THE JALAPÃO REGION, IN THE CENTRAL BRAZILIAN CERRADO. Herpetologica 65 (3): 311-327 - get paper here
  • Cosendey, B. N., Rocha, C. F. D., & Menezes, V. A. 2020. Six years later… New population monitoring data for an endemic and endangered coastal lizard species in Brazil. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 24(4), 1-10 - get paper here
  • Ezaz, T. et al. 2009. Sex Chromosome Evolution in Lizards: Independent Origins and Rapid Transitions. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 249-260 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • Peccinini-Seale, D.; Rocha, C.F.; Almeida, T.M.; Araujo, A.F., De Sena, M.A. 2004. Cytogenetics of the Brazilian whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus littoralis (Teiidae) from a restinga area (Barra de Marica) in Southeastern Brazil. Braz J Biol 64 (3B): 661-667. - get paper here
  • REEDER, T.W.; CHARLES J. COLE AND HERBERT C. DESSAUER 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of Whiptail Lizards of the Genus Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): A Test of Monophyly, Reevaluation of Karyotypic Evolution, and Review of Hybrid Origins. American Museum Novitates 3365: 1-64 - get paper here
  • Reis Dias, Eduardo, José dos, Carlos Frederico D. Rocha and Davor Vrcibradic 2002. New Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) from Bahia State, northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2002 (4) :928-937 - get paper here
  • Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte & Bergallo, H.D. 1997. Intercommunity variation in the distribution of abundance of dominant lizard species in restinga habitats. Ciénc. Cult. 47: 88-91
  • Rocha,C.F.D. et al. 2000. New Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) from coastal Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. Copeia 2000 (2): 501-509 - get paper here
  • ROSÁRIO, IGOR RIOS DO; RODRIGO MARQUES LIMA DOS SANTOS, FEDERICO ARIAS, CARLOS FREDERICO DUARTE ROCHA, EDUARDO JOSÉ DOS REIS DIAS, CELSO MORATO DE CARVALHO, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2019. Phylogeography of the endangered sand dune whiptail lizard Glaucomastix abaetensis (Dias, Rocha & Vrcibradic, 2002) with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 4624 (4): 451–477 - get paper here
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