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Glyptemys muhlenbergii (SCHOEPFF, 1801)

IUCN Red List - Glyptemys muhlenbergii - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaEmydidae, Emydinae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Bog Turtle
G: Mühlenberg-Schildkröte 
SynonymTestudo muhlenbergi SCHOEPFF 1801
Emys biguttata SAY 1824
Emys (Cistuda) carolinae fusca GRAY 1830:7
Emys bipunctata GRAY 1831 (ex errore)
Emys fusca LESUEUR 1831 (nomen nudum)
Clemmys muhlenbergii — FITZINGER 1835
Emys Muhlenbergii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 304
Calemys muhlenbergii — AGASSIZ 1857
Kalemys Muhlenburgii — ENNIS 1861: 124
Geoclemmys mühlenburgii GRAY 1870 (ex errore)
Clemmys nuchalis DUNN 1917
Clemmys muhlenbergii — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 51
Clemmys muhlenbergii — CROTHER 2000
Glyptemys muhlenbergii — HOLMAN & FRITZ 2001
Calemys muhlenbergii — FELDMAN & PARHAM 2002
Glyptemys muhlenbergii — OBST 2003: 16
Glyptemys muhlenbergii — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2006
Clemmys muhlenbergii — JENSEN et al. 2008: 472
Glyptemys muhlenbergii — TTWG 2014
Glyptemys muhlenbergii — TTWG 2021 
DistributionUSA (W Massachusetts, Connecticut, NW/E New York, NW/E Pennsylvania, New Jersey, N Delaware, Maryland, S Virginia and adjacent W North Carolina, N South Carolina, Georgia, E Tennessee)

Type locality: Lancaster, Pennsylvania.  
TypesHolotype: unknown fide Iverson 1992: 174
Holotype: AMNH 8430. Paratypes: AMNH 8389; MCZ 12498, USNM [nuchalis] 
CommentThis is one of the 25 most endangered turtle species according to a 2003 assessment by the IUCN.

Synonymy: partly after RHODIN et al. 2010.

Habitat: freshwater (swamps, bogs, rivers) 
EtymologyNamed after German-born, American pastor-naturalist, Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg (1753-1815). 
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  • Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Chris R. Feldman 2013. Are diminutive turtles miniaturized? The ontogeny of plastron shape in emydine turtles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013 - get paper here
  • Arndt, R.G. 1986. Notes on the Bog Turtle, Clemmys muhlenbergi, in Warren County, New Jersey. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 22 (2): 55-61 - get paper here
  • Bartlett, Richard D. 1989. The bog turtle Clemmys muhlenbergi. Vivarium 2 (3): 25-27
  • Barton, A. J.; John W. Price, Sr. 1955. Our knowledge of the bogturtle, Clemmys muhlenbergi, surveyed and augmented. Copeia 1955 (3): 159-165 - get paper here
  • Beane, J C 2019. New geographic distribution records for reptiles from North Carolina, USA. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 538-542 - get paper here
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  • Byer, N. W., Smith, S. A., & Seigel, R. A. 2018. Microgeographic Variation in Bog Turtle Nesting Ecology. Journal of Herpetology 52 (2): 228–233 - get paper here
  • Byer, Nathan W.; Brendan N. Reid, Richard A. Seigel, and Marcus Z. Peery 2018. Applying Lessons from Avian Ecology to Herpetological Research: Techniques for Analyzing Nest Survival due to Predation. Herp. Cons. Biol. 13 (3): 517–532 - get paper here
  • Byer, Nathan W.; Scott A. Smith and Richard A. Seigel 2017. Effects of Site, Year, and Estimator Choice on Home Ranges of Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in Maryland. Journal of Herpetology 51 (1): 68–72 - get paper here
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  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
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  • Ennis 1861. “Mr. Ennis exhibited two of the young of Kalemys Muhlenburgii”. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1861: 124-125 - get paper here
  • Ernst, Carl H. 2001. An overview of the North American turtle genus Clemmys Ritgen, 1828. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4 (1): 211-216
  • Ernst, Carl H. 2011. Glyptemys muhlenbergii (bog turtle) low incidence of algae and leeches. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 420-421 - get paper here
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  • Feaga, Jeffrey B. and Carola A. Haas 2015. Seasonal Thermal Ecology of Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in Southwestern Virginia. Journal of Herpetology Jun 2015, Vol. 49, No. 2: 264-275. - get paper here
  • Feldman, C. R. & Parham, James Ford 2002. Molecular Phylogenetics of Emydine Turtles: Taxonomic Revision and the Evolution of Shell Kinesis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22 (3): 388-398 - get paper here
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  • Hennen, U. 2001. Categories of the Red List. Radiata 10 (3): 23-28
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  • Herman, Dennis W.;Beane, Jeffrey C. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Clemmys muhlenbergii. Herpetological Review 28 (3): 156-157 - get paper here
  • Herman, Dennis W.;Hunter, Elizabeth;McGrath, Chris 1996. Geographic Distribution. Clemmys muhlenbergii. Herpetological Review 27 (4): 210 - get paper here
  • Herman, Dennis W.;Tryon, Bern W.;Boynton, Allen C. 1993. Clemmys muhlenbergii (bog turtle). USA: North Carolina. Herpetological Review 24 (4): 154 - get paper here
  • Holman, J. Alan; Fritz, Uwe 2001. A new emydine species from the Middle Miocene (Barstovian) of Nebraska, USA with a new generic arrangement for the species of Clemmys sensu McDOWELL (1964). Zoologische Abhandlungen<br />(Dresden) 51(2):331-353 - get paper here
  • Hutchinson, Victor H. 1963. Record of the bog turtle, Clemmys muhlenbergi, in southwestern Virginia. Copeia 1963 (1): 156-157 - get paper here
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  • Lambertz, H. & Lambertz, K. 2003. Erfahrungen bei der Haltung und Vermehrung der Moorschildkröte Glyptemys muhlenbergii SCHOEPFF (1801). Draco 4 (13): 32-36 - get paper here
  • Liu, Yu-xiang; Christina M. Davy, Hai-Tao Shi, and Robert W. Murphy 2013. Sex in the Half-Shell: A Review of the Functions and Evolution of Courtship Behavior in Freshwater Turtles. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Jul 2013, Vol. 12, No. 1: 84-100. - get paper here
  • Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Carl H. Ernst, Evelyn M. Ernst, and Julia L. Riley 2014. A 21-Year Study of Seasonal and Interspecific Variation of Hatchling Emergence in a Nearctic Freshwater Turtle Community: To Overwinter or Not To Overwinter? Herpetological Monographs, 28: 93-109 - get paper here
  • Macey, Suzanne K.; Purva B. Vaidya, Caroline Chiu, J. Alan Clark & Kevin T. Shoemaker 2020. Evidence for Nest-Site Fidelity but Not Natal Homing in Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii). Journal of Herpetology 54 (3): 317-324 - get paper here
  • Madrigal, T. Cregg 2008. A prehistoric record of Glyptemys muhlenbergii (Bog Turtle) in Central New York. Northeastern Naturalist 15(2):309-312 - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2006. Chelonian Illustrations # 24 - North American Wood and Pond Turtles. Reptilia (GB) (44): 83-86 - get paper here
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  • Melendez, Nelson A.; Brian Zarate, Jonathan Fingerut, and Scott P. McRobert 2017. Diet of Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) from Northern and Southern New Jersey, USA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 12 (1): - get paper here
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  • Shoemaker, Kevin T. and James P. Gibbs 2013. Genetic Connectivity among Populations of the Threatened Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) and the Need for a Regional Approach to Turtle Conservation. Copeia Jul 2013, Vol. 2013, No. 2: 324-331. - get paper here
  • Sirois, Angela Marie; James P. Gibbs, Alison L. Whitlock, and Lori A. Erb 2014. Effects of Habitat Alterations on Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): A Comparison of Two Populations. Journal of Herpetology 48 (4): 455-460. - get paper here
  • Smith, Lisa M. and Robert P. Cherry 2016. Hibernation Ecology of an Isolated Population of Bog Turtles, Glyptemys muhlenbergii. Copeia 104 (2): 475–481 - get paper here
  • Stratmann, Theresa S. M.; Kyle Barrett, and Thomas M. Floyd 2016. Locating Suitable Habitat for a Rare Species: Evaluation of a Species Distribution Model For Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the Southeastern United States. Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (1) - get paper here
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  • Travis, Kristen Bell; Erik Kiviat, Jason Tesauro, Lea Stickle, Melissa Fadden, Veronica Steckler, and Laura Lukas 2018. Grazing for Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) Habitat Management: Case Study of a New York Fen. Herp. Cons. Biol. 13 (3): 726–742 - get paper here
  • Travis, Kristen Bell; Ingrid Haeckel, Gretchen Stevens, Jason Tesauro, and Erik Kiviat 2018. Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) Dispersal Corridors and Conservation in New York, USA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 13 (1): 257–272 - get paper here
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  • Zappalorti, Robert T.; Annalee M. Tutterow, Shannon E. Pittman, and Jeffrey E. Lovich 2017. Hatching Success and Predation of Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) Eggs in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2017, Vol. 16, No. 2: 194-202. - get paper here
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