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Gomesophis brasiliensis (GOMES, 1918)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Brazilian Burrowing Snake
Portuguese: Cobra-Bola, Cobra-Buraqueira, Cobra-D’água, Cobra-do-Lodo 
SynonymTachymenis brasiliensis GOMES 1918: 78
Tachymenis brasiliensis — AMARAL 1932
Gomesophis brasiliensis — HOGE & MERTENS 1959
Gomesophis brasiliensis — DE LEMA 1962
Gomesophis brasiliensis — SCARTOZZONI & MARQUES 2004
Gomesophis brasiliensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 312
Gomesophis brasiliensis — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Gomesophis brasiliensis — TREVINE et al. 2022 
DistributionBrazil (Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina)

Type locality: Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: IBSP (= IB) 1316 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Dorsals in 17/17/15 rows of smooth scales, circular pupil, preocular 1/1, supralabials 9; total height of the Duvernoy (venom) gland does not surpass the lower limit of the eye; small head and short and robust body; calyces of the hemipenis with large spines (Fig. S6B in TREVINE et al. 2022).

Synapomorphies (genus). Margin of the anterior process of septomaxilla irregularly shaped; parietal bone and ocular orbit contact restricted to a diminutive portion of the latero-anterior parietal margin; one central crest in parabasisphenoid bone; and short vomerian projection of palatine bone (Appendix S3–S5 in TREVINE et al. 2022). 
CommentBelongs to the Tachymenini, together with 6 other genera (BAILEY 1967), including Ptychophis, Tomodon, Thamnodynastes, and Tachymenis.

Habitat: burrowing in mud, partially aquatic

Type species: Tachymenis brasiliensis GOMES 1918: 78 is the type species of the genus Gomesophis HOGE & MERTENS 1959. 
EtymologyNamed after the species’ distribution in Brazil. 
  • Amaral, A. D. 1932. Contribuicao a biologia dos ofidios do Brasil III. Habitos curiosos da especie Tachymenis brasiliensis Gomes (Colubridae, Boiginae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 7: 91-92 - get paper here
  • Bailey, Joseph R. 1967. The synthetic approach to colubrid classification. Herpetologica 23 (2): 155-161 - get paper here
  • Barbisan Fortes, Vanessa; Elaine Maria Lucas and Vinícius Matheus Caldart 2010. Reptilia, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Gomesophis brasiliensis (Gomes, 1918): Distribution extension in state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Check List 6 (3): 414-415 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Gomes, J.F. 1918. Contribuição para o conhecimento dos ofidios do Brasil. III (1). Mem. Inst. Butantan 1 (1): 57-83 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez, R. C., A. L. C. Prudente & F. L. Franco 2014. Morphological variation of Gomesophis brasiliensis and Ptychophis flavovirgatus (Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Salamandra 50 (2): 85-98 - get paper here
  • Hoge, Alphonse Richard and Robert Mertens. 1959. Eine neue Gattung opisthoglypher Nattern aus Brasilien. Senckenbergiana Biologica 40 (5/6): 241-243
  • Klaczko, J; Sherratt E, Setz EZF 2016. Are Diet Preferences Associated to Skulls Shape Diversification in Xenodontine Snakes? PLoS One 11 (2): e0148375. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148375 - get paper here
  • Menezes FA, Abegg AD, Silva BR, Franco FL, Feio RN 2018. Composition and natural history of the snakes from the Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio, southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil. ZooKeys 797: 117-160 - get paper here
  • Menezes, Frederico Alcantara 2017. Repertoire of antipredator displays in the poorly known Atlantic forest snake, Gomesophis brasiliensis (Gomes, 1918). Herpetology Notes 10: 245-247 - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Renato Silveira Bérnils, Julio Cesar de Moura-Leite 2017. RÉPTEIS DE CURITIBA: COLETÂNEA DE REGISTROS Hori Consultoria, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, 99 pp.
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Outeiral, Arlete B.; Rafael L. Balestrin, Lize H. Cappellari, Thales de Lema, Vanda Lúcia Ferreira 2018. Snake assemblage from Serra do Sudeste, Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 733-745 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Prudente, Ana Lúcia da Costa;Brandão, Reuber A. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Gomesophis brasiliensis. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 112 - get paper here
  • Trevine, V. C., Grazziotin, F. G., Giraudo, A., Sallesbery‐Pinchera, N., Vianna, J. A., & Zaher, H. 2022. The systematics of Tachymenini (Serpentes, Dipsadidae): An updated classification based on molecular and morphological evidence. Zoologica Scripta - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam; Fausto Erritto BarboI; Paola Sanchez Martínez; Cristiano Nogueira; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya 2011. Répteis do Estado de São Paulo: conhecimento atual e perspectivas. Biota Neotropica, 11 (1): 1–15. - get paper here
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