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Gyiophis maculosus (BLANFORD, 1881)

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Higher TaxaHomalopsidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Blanford’s Mud Snake, Blanford's Spotted Water Snake 
SynonymHypsirhina maculata BLANFORD 1879: 130 (non DUMÉRIL & BIBRON)
Hypsirhina maculosa BLANFORD 1881: 226 (subst. name for maculata)
Hypsirhina blanfordi BOULENGER 1890 (fide SMITH 1943)
Enhydris maculosa — SMITH 1943: 387
Enhydris maculosa — WALLACH et al. 2014: 272
Gyiophis maculosa — MURPHY & VORIS 2014: 21
Gyiophis maculosus — REPTILE DATABASE 2020 
DistributionMyanmar (= Burma: Irrawaddy River Delta), Indonesia (Nias)

Type locality: ‘Pegu (probably in the neighbourhood of Bassein)’ (= Bago, in southern Myanmar).  
TypesNeotype: BMNH 1913.6.12.1 (designated by MURPHY 2007: 282)
Holotype: ZSI 8207 (but not located by Das et al. 1998). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Small to medium sized, with the combination of smooth scales, nasals in contact, 25 scale rows at mid-body, first three upper labials contact loreal, fourth upper labial in orbit. May be most easily confused with the snake formerly known as Enhydris pahangensis Tweedie, which has 25 dorsal scales rows, but has the first upper labial excluded from loreal (MURPHY & VORIS 2014: 21).

DIAGNOSIS: This species has three pairs of chin shields, 123 ventrals, and a dorsal pattern of blotches without a stripe. All of which will separate it from G. vorisi, which has more than 142 ventrals and a stripe on scale rows 2–4 (n = 1; MURPHY & VORIS 2014: 22). 
CommentDistribution: reports from China are erroneus (J. Murphy, pers. comm. 23 June 2011).

Synonymy: Boulenger 1890 was apparently unaware of the replacement name that Blanford himself had suggested in 1881 and suggested another replacement name, Hypsirhina blanfordi.

Type species: Hypsirhina maculosa BLANFORD 1881 is the type species of the genus Gyiophis MURPHY & VORIS 2014: 21. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin macula = spot, or Latin maculatus, maculosus = spotted.

The genus has been named in honor of Ko Ko Gyi, the Burmese herpetologist who revised the homalopsids. Murphy & Voris 2014 claimed (erroneously) that the gender of the genus is feminine. It’s actually masculine, like all other genera ending in -ophis. 
  • Blanford, W. T. 1881. On a collection of reptiles and frogs chiefly from Singapore. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1881: 215-226. - get paper here
  • Blanford, W.T. 1879. Notes on Reptilia. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal xlviii: 127-132 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Murphy, J.C. & Voris, H.K. 2014. A Checklist and Key to the Homalopsid Snakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes), with the Description of New Genera. FIELDIANA: LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCES (8): 1–43 - get paper here
  • Murphy, John C. 2007. A review of Enhydris maculosa (Blanford, 1879) and the description of a related species (Serpentes, Homalopsidae). Hamadryad 31 (2): 281-287 - get paper here
  • Murphy, John C. 2007. Homalopsid Snakes: Evolution in the Mud. Krieger Publishing, Malabar, Florida, 249 pp.
  • QUAH, EVAN S.H.; L. LEE GRISMER, PERRY L., JR. WOOD, MYINT KYAW THURA, THAW ZIN, HTET KYAW, NGWE LWIN, MARTA S. GRISMER, MATTHEW L. MURDOCH 2017. A new species of Mud Snake (Serpentes, Homalopsidae, Gyiophis Murphy & Voris, 2014) from Myanmar with a first molecular phylogenetic assessment of the genus. Zootaxa 4238 (4): 571–582 - get paper here
  • Sclater,W.L. 1891. Notes on a collection of snakes in the Indian Museum, with descriptions of several new species. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal LX: 230-250 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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