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Gymnodactylus amarali BARBOUR, 1925

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Higher TaxaPhyllodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesPortuguese: Briba, Lagartixa 
SynonymGymnodactylus amarali BARBOUR 1925: 101
Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali — VANZOLINI 1953: 251
Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali — WERMUTH 1965: 53
Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali — RÖSLER 2000: 85
Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali — BERTOLOTTO et al. 2004
Gymnodactylus amarali — VANZOLINI 2005
Gymnodactylus carvalhoi VANZOLINI 2005
Gymnodactylus amarali — CASSIMIRO & RODRIGUES 2009
Gymnodactylus carvalhoi — JORGE et al. 2022 
DistributionBrazil (south of Rio Parnahyba to Rio das Mortes, south to SE Goyaz, east through S Bahia, Piaui)

Type locality: Engenheiro Dodt, Santa Philomena, Upper Rio Parnahyba, Brazil.

carvalhoi: Brazil (Cerrado of C Brazil; Tocantins); Type locality: Ipueiras, Tocantins.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 20682
Holotype [carvalhoi]: MZUSP 91187, Ipueiras, Tocantins, 26-29.v.2002, ex MVA Planejamento e Consultoria Ambiental. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (amarali): Rows of dorsal tubercles 12-16; tubercles in a paramedian row, 33-43; ventrals 19-24; lamellae, 13-19; dorsum and flanks with irregular rows of black, white-centered ocelli; distribution, Central Brasil (present states of Goiás, Tocantins and Mato Grosso) to Piauí [from VANZOLINI 2004]. Known from only 2 specimens fide CASSIMIRO & RODRIGUES 2009.

DIAGNOSIS (carvalhoi): Color pattern plain or, more frequently, with moderately
marked ocelli. Meristic characters: Dorsal tubercles in 13 – 16 irregular rows (mode 14, 72%); 31 – 49 tubercles in a paramedian row; 17 – 24 transverse
rows of ventral scales; 13 – 21 infradigital lamellae on the fourth toe.

Original diagnosis: “A richly colored gecko with rows of dorsal ocelli and many more or less irregular series of very large tubercles. It differs from G. geckoides (Spix) in having larger and more irregularly arranged dorsal tubercles, in having more longitudinal series of ventral scales and conspicuously in coloration.” (Barbour 1925)

Original description (holotype): “Head little depressed, oviform; snout between 1½ and 1⅓ longer than the orbital diameter; a little longer than the distance be tween eye and ear opening; forehead slightly convex; ear opening roughly oblong and about ⅓ the diameter of the eye. Body and limbs normal; digits slightly depressed at the base with transverse plates below. Snout covered with rather large and more or less round granules, the largest on the anterior portion of the snout; smaller granules interspersed with slightly larger ones covering all other portions of the head; rostral slightly broader than high, with medium cleft above; nostril between the rostral, a supranasal, two postnasals, and on one side, the anterior upper corner of the first supralabial; upper labials, the last very small, 6 lower labials, first by far the largest; mental very large, rounded posteriorly; a pair of chin shields behind the mental widely separated on the median line. Body covered with small scales, which incline to be imbricate, and irregular rows of large tubercles, those along the middorsal line being large, flat and keeled, while the rows along the sides of the body are composed of keeled but much more projecting tubercles altogether about 15 longitudinal series; abdominal scales cycloid imbricate in about 21 longitudinal series. The tail is missing.” (Barbour 1925) 
CommentVanzolini (2005) included under G. carvalhoi all specimens of Gymnodactylus from the Central Brazilian Cerrado currently attributed to Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali. Although Vanzolini did not examine the holotype of Barbour (1925), he redefined and redescribed G. amarali based on a single juvenile specimen he collected at Alto Parnaíba, state of Maranhão, in the surroundings of the type locality. Recognizing this specimen as the only other example of G. amarali he decided to allocate all other specimens from the Cerrado previously assigned to G. geckoides amarali, in his new species. CASSIMIRO & RODRIGUES 2009 think that Vanzolini was in error and synonymized G. carvalhoi with G. amarali. Note that Miranda et al. 2023 found two or three distinct genetic lineages in Serra da Mesa, Minaçu, and Colinas do Sul. 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Afranio do Amaral (1894-1982), Brazilian physician, zoologist, herpetologist, and Director of the Instituto Butantan (1919-1921 and 1928-1938).

Etymology (carvalhoi): Named after Celso Morato de Carvalho (Universidade Federal de Sergipe), old friend, colleague and field companion, who collected the specimen. 
  • Amorim, Mariana Eloy de; Thomas W. Schoener, Guilherme Ramalho Chagas Cataldi Santoro, Anna Carolina Ramalho Lins, Jonah Piovia-Scott, and Reuber Albuquerque Brandão 2017. Lizards on newly created islands independently and rapidly adapt in morphology and diet. PNAS 2017, doi:10.1073/pnas.1709080114 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1925. New Neotropical lizards. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 38: 101-102 - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M. 2013. Geckos - The Animal Answer Guide. Johns Hopkins University Press, 159 pp.
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bertolotto, C.E.V.; K.C.M. Pellegrino and Y. Yonenaga-Yassuda 2004. Occurrence of B chromosomes in lizards: a review. Cytogenet Genome Res 106: 243–246 - get paper here
  • CASSIMIRO, JOSÉ & MIGUEL T. RODRIGUES. 2009. A new species of lizard genus Gymnodactylus Spix, 1825 (Squamata: Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) from Serra do Sincorá, northeastern Brazil, and the status of G. carvalhoi Vanzolini, 2005. Zootaxa 2008: 38-52 - get paper here
  • Diele-Viegas LM, Vitt LJ, Sinervo B, Colli GR, Werneck FP, Miles DB, et al. 2018. Thermal physiology of Amazonian lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). PLoS ONE 13(3): e0192834 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Guerra, V., Ramalho, W. P., Machado, I. F., & Brandão, R. A. 2022. Herpetofauna of the Serra do Tombador Nature Reserve, State of Goiás, Central Brazil. Arquivos de Zoologia, 53(3), 33-51 - get paper here
  • JORGE, R. F., & PEÑA, A. P. 2022. REPTILES FROM AN URBAN PARK IN THE CERRADO OF CENTRAL BRAZIL. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 17(2), 413-422 - get paper here
  • Miranda, R. B., Brandão, R. A., O'Connel, K., Colli, G. R., R Tonini, J. F., & Pyron, R. A. 2023. Multilocus environmental adaptation and population structure in the Cerrado gecko Gymnodactylus amarali (Sauria, Phyllodactylidae) from Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Plant, Central Brazil. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 11, 980777 - get paper here
  • Pellegrino, K.C.M. et al. 2009. Chromosomal Evolution in the Brazilian Geckos of the Genus Gymnodactylus (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) from the Biomes of Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic Rain Forest: Evidence of Robertsonian Fusion Events and Supernumerary Chromosomes. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 191-203 - get paper here
  • RECODER, R.S.,TEIXEIRA JUNIOR, M., CAMACHO, A., NUNES, P.M.S., MOTT, T., VALDUJO, P.H., GHELLERE, J.M., NOGUEIRA, C. & RODRIGUES, M.T. 2011. Reptiles of Serra Geral do Tocantins Ecological Station, Central Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 11(1): - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. 2015. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae. Zootaxa 3981 (1): 001–055 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • Santos, S. S., dos Santos, T. F., de Araújo Gomes, I. S., Pereira, O. A., dos Santos, I. M. E. L., & Guzzi, A. 2023. Herpetofauna of Piuaí [sic] state, northeastern Brazil. CONTRIBUCIONES A LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES, 16(7), 6645-6669 - get paper here
  • Shepard, D.B. 2007. Habitat but not body shape affects predator attack frequency on lizard models in the Brazilian Cerrado. Herpetologica 63 (2): 193-202 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P. E. 1953. "Sobre a diferenciação geografica de Gymnodactylus geckoides (Sauria, Gekkonidae)" and "Sobre a Presença do genero Lepidoblepharis no Brasil (Sauria, Gekkonidae)". Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 11 (14/15): 225-270
  • Vanzolini, P.E. 2005. On Gymnodactylus amarali Barbour, 1925, with the description of a new species (Sauria, Gekkonidae). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 77(4): 595-611 - get paper here
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