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Gymnodactylus geckoides SPIX, 1825

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Higher TaxaPhyllodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Naked-toed Gecko
G: Brasilianischer Nacktfingergecko 
SynonymGymnodactylus geckoides SPIX 1825: 17
Stenodactylus geckoides — FITZINGER 1826: 48
Ascalabotes geckoides — BOIE 1826: 119
Ascalabotes geckoides — FITZINGER 1827: 746
Gymnodactylus geckoides — CUVIER 1829: 58
Cyrtodactylus spixii GRAY 1831: 52 (substitute name for G. geckoides)
Gecko gymnodactylus SCHINZ 1833: 75 (substitute name for G. geckoides)
Gonyodactylus (Dasyderma) spinulosus FITZINGER 1843: 92 (subst. name)
Gymnodactylus geckoides — BOULENGER 1885: 39
Gymnodactylus conspicuus AMARAL 1933: 57
Gymnodactylus geckoides geckoides — VANZOLINI 1953: 252
Gymnodactylus geckoides geckoides — RÖSLER 2000: 85
Gymnodactylus geckoides — CASSIMIRO & RODRIGUES 2009 
DistributionBrazil (Ceará, Rio Parnahyba to Rio das Mortes, Goias, Bahia, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Paraiba, Villa Nova, Minas Gerais; “Caatinga in northeastern Brazil”, Rio Grande do Norte, Piauí), Trinidad ?

Type locality: Bahia, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: lost fide Hoogmoed and Gruber 1983: 392 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 135.

Subspecies: Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali BARBOUR 1925 has been elevated to full species status.

Type species: Gymnodactylus geckoides SPIX 1825 is the type species of the genus Gymnodactylus SPIX 1825.

Gymnodactylus is characterized by gymnodactily, or the presence of free fingers without dilations, bearing wide, undivided subdigital lamellae; distal phalanges elevated above the basal ones; nail placed between two scales, the ventral scale indented; straight, vertical pupils, and an heterogeneous dorsal lepidosis, with granules and tubercles (Vanzolini 1968a; 1982). Except for the absence of bent fingers, Homonota is the only South American gekkonid sharing with Gymnodactylus all external characters mentioned above. Cacciali et al. (2007) erroneously considered Homonota as the only South American genus presenting fingers without dilations, overlooking its occurrence in Gymnodactylus and Garthia, as well as in some sphaerodactyls. Nevertheless, Gymnodactylus can be distinguished promptly from Homonota by having digits more angulated with large and distended proximal subdigital lamellae, by having a much larger mental, enlarged postmentals, and some myological and osteological differences in the skull and pectoral girdle (Abdala & Moro 1996; Kluge 1964). Garthia, on the other hand, presents an homogeneous dorsal lepidosis, lobate pupil (Vanzolini 1968a; Vanzolini & Donoso-Barros 1966), and double frontal bone (Abdala 1996). Other South American gekkonid genera with gymnodactily are Coleodactylus, Gonatodes, Lepidoblepharis and Pseudogonatodes that are presently included in a different tribe (Sphaerodactylini, according to Kluge 1967; 1987), or subfamily (Sphaerodactylinae, Underwood 1954; 1955), or family (Sphaerodactylidae, Gamble et. 2008). Externally they can be immediately separated from Gymnodactylus by presenting round pupils and homogeneous dorsal scales (Parker 1926; Vanzolini 1967; 1968a). Coleodactylus, Lepidoblepharis and Pseudogonatodes have a claw surrounded by four or more scales (Avila-Pires 1995; Kluge 1964; Vanzolini 1967; 1968a) [from CASSIMIRO & RODRIGUES 2009].

geckoides: Rows of dorsal tubercles, 12; tubercles in a paramedian row, 37-46; ventrals, 17-22; lamellae, 16-20; dorsum brown without or with scarce dark marblings, no ocelli; distribution: northeastern Brazil from Salvador north to
northern Paraíba [from VANZOLINI 2004]. See amarali for a comparison.

Distribution: amarali probably also in Bolivia (fide LANGSTROTH 2005). 
  • Alcantara, Edna P.; Cristiana Ferreira-Silva, José Guilherme Gonçalves-Sousa, Drausio H. Morais, and Robson W. Ávila 2019. Feeding Ecology, Reproductive Biology, and Parasitism of Gymnodactylus geckoides Spix, 1825 from a Caatinga Area in Northeastern Brazil. Herp. Conserv. Biology 14 (3): 641–647 - get paper here
  • Amaral, A. do 1933. Estudos sobre Lacertilios neotropicos. I. novos generos e especies de largartos do Brasil. Mem. Inst. Butantan 7 [1932]: 51-75 - get paper here
  • Amaral, A. do. 1950. Two new South American lizards. Copeia 1950 (4): 281—284. - get paper here
  • Barbosa, Vanessa do Nascimento; Amaral, Jéssica Monique da Silva; Alcantara, Edivania do Nascimento Pereira; dos Santos, Ednilza Maranhão 2018. Herpetofauna de uma área de caatinga em Taquaritinga do Norte, agreste de Pernambuco, Brasil. Cuad. herpetol. 32 (2): 109-115 - get paper here
  • Bertolotto, C.E.V.; K.C.M. Pellegrino and Y. Yonenaga-Yassuda 2004. Occurrence of B chromosomes in lizards: a review. Cytogenet Genome Res 106: 243–246 - get paper here
  • Boie H. 1826. Bemerkungen ueber die von Hr. von Spix abgebildeten Saurier. Isis von Oken 18: 117–120. - get paper here
  • Borges-Nojosa, D. M. & Caramaschi, U. 2003. Composição e análise comparativa da diversidade e das afinidades biogeográficas dos lagartos e anfisbenídeos (Squamata) dos brejos nordestinos. In: I.R. Leal, M. Tabarelli & J.M.C. Silva (eds.). Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga, pp. 181-236. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Calixto PO, Morato SAA 2017. Herpetofauna recorded by a fauna rescue program in a Caatinga area of João Câmara, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Check List 13 (5): 647-657 - get paper here
  • Carvalho, Crizanto B. De, Rafael A. Do Santos, Stephanie M. Rocha1, Francis L.S. Caldas, Evellyn B. De Freitas, Bruno D. Da Silva, Daniel O. Santana and R.G. Faria 2012. Gymnodactylus geckoides (naked-toed gecko): Predation. Herpetological Bulletin (121) - get paper here
  • Costa, Taís Borges; Daniel Orsi Laranjeiras, Francis Luiz Santos Caldas, Daniel Oliveira Santana, Cristiana Ferreira da Silva, Edna Paulino de Alcântara, Samuel Vieira Brito, Jéssica Yara Galdino, Daniel Oliveira Mesquita, Renato Gomes Faria, Frederi 2018. Herpetofauna of protected areas in the Caatinga VII: Aiuaba Ecological Station (Ceará, Brazil). Herpetology Notes 11: 929-941 - get paper here
  • Cunha, P. D., De Mesquita, P. C. M. D. & Borges-Nojosa, D. M. 2012. Gymnodactylus geckoides defensive behavior. Herpetological Review 43: 486-487 - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. J. L. N. F. D. 1829. Le Regne Animal Distribué, d'apres son Organisation, pur servir de base à l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux et d'introduction à l'Anatomie Comparé. Nouvelle Edition [second edition]. Vol. 2. Les Reptiles. Déterville, Paris, i-xvi, 1-406 - get paper here
  • Feio, R.N. & Caramaschi, U. 2003. Contribuição ao conhecimento da herpetofauna do nordeste do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Phyllomedusa 1 (2): 105-111 [2002] - get paper here
  • Fitzinger L. 1827. Recension des Spixischen Eidechsenwerkes. Isis von Oken 20: 741–749 - get paper here
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  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Franzini, Lissa Dellefrate; Izabel Regina Soares Silva, Daniel Oliveira Santana, Fagner Ribeiro Delfim, Gustavo Henrique Calazans Vieira, Daniel Oliveira Mesquita 2019. Lizards fauna from the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil: current knowledge and sampling discontinuities. Herpetology Notes 12: 749-763 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de 2014. Squamate reptiles of the Atlantic Forest of northern Bahia, Brazil. Check List 10 (5): 1020-1030 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Daniel da Silva Araújo, Hugo Estevam de Almeida Coelho, Weverton dos Santos Azevedo, Márcio Frazão Chaves, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa de Moura 2019. Herpetofauna of five "Brejos de Altitude" of the interior of the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 12: 591-602 - get paper here
  • Gomides, Samuel Campos and Paulo Christiano De Anchietta Garcia. 2014. Gymnodactylus geckoides (naked-toed gecko, lagartixa) hatchling size/behavior. Herpetological Review 45 (3): 499 - get paper here
  • Gonçalves-Sousa, José Guilherme; Daniel Oliveira Mesquita & Robson Waldemar Ávila 2019. Structure of a Lizard Assemblage in a Semiarid Habitat of the Brazilian Caatinga. Herpetologica 75 (4): 301-314 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1831. A synopsis of the species of Class Reptilia. In: Griffith, E & E. Pidgeon: The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organisation by the Baron Cuvier with additional descriptions of all the species hither named, and of many before noticed [V Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London: 481 + 110 pp. [1830]
  • Hoogmoed,M.S. and Gruber,U. 1983. Spix and Wagler type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the Natural History Musea in Munich (Germany) and Leiden (The Netherlands). Spixiana Suppl. 9: 319-415 - get paper here
  • Langstroth, R.P. 2005. Adiciones probables y confirmadas para la saurofauna boliviana. Kempffiana 1 (1): 101-128
  • Madella-Auricchio, Cláudia Renata; Paulo Auricchio Enio Saraiva Soares 2017. Reptile species composition in the Middle Gurguéia and comparison with inventories in the eastern Parnaíba River Basin, State of Piauí, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 57(28): 375-386, - get paper here
  • Mesquita, Daniel Oliveira; Brygida Alves, Carmem Pedro, Daniel Laranjeiras, Francis Caldas, Isabella Pedrosa, Jefter Rodrigues, Leandro Drummond, Lucas Cavalcanti, Milena Wachlevski, Paulo Nogueira-Costa, Rafaela França, Frederico França 2018. Herpetofauna in two habitat types (tabuleiros and Stational Semidecidual Forest) in the Reserva Biológica Guaribas, northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 455-474 - get paper here
  • Pellegrino, K.C.M. et al. 2009. Chromosomal Evolution in the Brazilian Geckos of the Genus Gymnodactylus (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) from the Biomes of Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic Rain Forest: Evidence of Robertsonian Fusion Events and Supernumerary Chromosomes. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 191-203 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro, S. C., I. J. Roberto, D. L. Sales, R. W. Ávila & W. O. Almeida 2012. Amphibians and reptiles from the Araripe bioregion, northeastern Brazil. Salamandra 48 (3): 133-146 - get paper here
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  • Rösler, Herbert; Frank Glaw, Hinrich Kaiser 2017. Identity and history of an odd, old gecko (Gymnodactylus geckoides Spix, 1825, Phyllodactylidae) from the Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Germany. Herpetology Notes 10: 89-99 - get paper here
  • Santos Caldas, Francis Luiz; Taís Borges Costa, Daniel Orsi Laranjeiras, Daniel Oliveira Mesquita, Adrian Antonio Garda 2016. Herpetofauna of protected areas in the Caatinga V: Seridó Ecological Station (Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil). Check List 12 (4): DOI: - get paper here
  • Schinz,K.R. 1833. Naturgeschichte und Abbildungen der Reptilien. Wiedmann, Leipzig, 240 pp. - get paper here
  • Souza, U F; Oitaven, L P C & Do Moura, G J B; 2019. Gymnodactylus geckoides Eggs and hatchlings. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 576-577 - get paper here
  • Spix, J. B. von 1825. Animalia nova sive species nova lacertarum quas in itinere per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII-MDCCCXX jussu et auspicius Maximiliani Josephi I Bavariae Regis suscepto collegit et descripsit Dr. J. B. de Spix. Lipsiae: T. O. Weigel; F. S. Hübschmanni, Monachii, 26 pp. - get paper here
  • Vanzolini P E 1982. A new Gymnodactylus from Minas Gerais, Brasil, with remarks on the genus on the area and on the montane endemisms in Brasil (Sauria, Gekkonidae). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 34(29) 1982: 403-413
  • Vanzolini, P. E. 1953. "Sobre a diferenciação geografica de Gymnodactylus geckoides (Sauria, Gekkonidae)" and "Sobre a Presença do genero Lepidoblepharis no Brasil (Sauria, Gekkonidae)". Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 11 (14/15): 225-270
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  • Vanzolini, P.E. 2004. On the geographical differentiation of Gymnodactylus geckoides Spix, 1825 (Sauria, Gekkonidae): speciation in the Brasilian caatingas. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 76 (4):663–698 [] - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P.E. 2005. On Gymnodactylus amarali Barbour, 1925, with the description of a new species (Sauria, Gekkonidae). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 77(4): 595-611 - get paper here
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