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Helicops infrataeniatus JAN, 1865

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-D’água, Cobra-D’água-Meridional 
SynonymHelicops infrataeniatus JAN 1865: 253
Helicops carinicaudus var. gastrosticta JAN 1865
Helicops trivittatus COPE 1878: 92
Calopisma septemvittatum FISCHER 1879: 84 (fide ROSSMAN 2000)
Helicops baliogaster COPE 1885: 193
Limnophis septemvittatus — COPE 1885: 177
Helicops septemvittatus — BOULENGER 1893: 275
Helicops pictiventris WERNER 1897
Helicops carinicauda var. infrataeniata GRIFFIN 1916
Helicops carinicaudus infrataeniatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Helicops infrataeniatus — HOFSTADLER DEIQUS & ZANINI CECHIN 1991
Helicops infrataeniatus — CEI 1993
Helicops infrataeniatus — GIRAUDO & SCROCCHI 2002
Helicops infrataeniatus — KAWASHITA-RIBEIRO et al. 2013
Helicops infrataeniatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 322
Helicops infrataeniatus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionS Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), Uruguay,
Argentina (Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Chaco, Formosa, Misiones), Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014)

Type locality: Suriname  
Reproductionovovivparous (Braz et al. 2016) 
TypesLectotype: ZMH - R04331 (formerly no. B88 da); The other syntype from Brazil is deposited in Essex Inst. Salem according to JAN (1865) (Helicops intrataeniata)
Types: ZMH R04340-4 (5 specimens) type locality "Mexico" in error. The type specimens of Calopisma septemvittata are a species inquirenda (Smith & Taylor , 1945), and cannot allied to any know species in the Mexican herpetofauna (Flores-Villela 1993 [Calopisma septemvittata]
Syntypes: (2) ANSP 11206-07; Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. [baliogaster]
Holotype: ZSM 198/0 (lost), adult, “Brasilien (Porto Alegre)” [pictiventris] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: This species can be distinguished from all other congeners except H. carinicaudus, H. nentur and H. tapajonicus by the combination of 17–20 dorsal scale rows at midbody, and a uniform or longitudinally striped dorsum. From H. nentur it differs in having a semidivided nasal scale, whereas H. nentur has an entire nasal scale. From H. carinicaudus it differs in having a cream or red venter with 1–3 dark stripes or darkly checkered or black with light spots. Sometimes the patterns shift into each other. From H. tapajonicus it differs in having strongly keeled dorsal scales, whereas H. tapajonicus has only a weak dorsal keeling. Additionally, H. tapajonicus possesses a ventrolateral greenish stripe, which is absent in H. infrataeniatus (for information on references see Suppl. material 3). Furthermore, these two species have allopatric distribution ranges (Schöneberg & Köhler 2021). 
CommentSynonymy after CEI 1993 and ROSSMAN 2000. Helicops baliogaster COPE 1885 is listed as a synonym of Helicops carinicaudas by BOULENGER 1886. 
  • Bellini, Gisela Paola; Vanesa Arzamendia and Alejandro Raúl Giraudo 2019. Reproductive life history of snakes in temperate regions: what are the differences between oviparous and viviparous species? Amphibia-Reptilia 40 (3): 291–303 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Braz, Henrique B.; Rodrigo R. Scartozzoni, Selma M. Almeida-Santos 2016. Reproductive modes of the South American water snakes: A study system for the evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles. Zoologischer Anzeiger 263: 33-44; doi:10.1016/j.jcz.2016.04.003 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Carreira Vidal, Santiago 2002. Alimentación de los ofidios de Uruguay. Asoc. Herp. Esp., Monograf. Herp. 6, 127 pp. - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Cope, E.D. 1878. Tenth contribution to the herpetology of Tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 17: 85-98 [1877] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884] - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique C.; Diego J. Santana, Fernando Leal, Ricardo Koroiva, and Paulo C.A. Garcia 2016. A New Species of Helicops (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Hydropsini) from Southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 72 (2): 157-166 - get paper here
  • Dainesi, Raiane Lesley Santos; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Paulo Sérgio Bernarde, Bruno Peña Correa, Laís Pio Caetano Machado, Afonso Santiago de Oliveira Meneses, Arthur de Sena Santos 2019. Integrative overview of snake species from Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 12: 419-430 - get paper here
  • de Aguiar, Luís Felipe Schmidt; Di-Bernardo, Marcos 2005. Reproduction of the water snake Helicops infrataeniatus (Colubridae) in southern Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 26 (4): 527-533 - get paper here
  • Deiques,C.H. & CECHIN,S.T.Z. 1991. O status de Helicops carinicaudus (WIed 1825) (Serpentes: Colubridae). Acta biol. leopoldensia 12 (2): 313-326
  • Entiauspe-Neto, Omar Machado; Tângela Denise Perleberg and Marco Antonio de Freitas 2016. Herpetofauna from an urban Pampa fragment in southern Brazil: composition, structure and conservation. Check List 12(5): 1964 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1879. Neue oder wenig bekannte Reptilien. Verh. naturwiss. Ver. Hamburg N.F. III: 78-103 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Giraudo, A. R., and G. J. Scrocchi 2002. Argentinian Snakes: An Annotated Checklist. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (132): 1-53 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Enumerazione sistematica degli ofidi appartenenti ai gruppo Potamophilidae. Archive per la Zoologia, l’Anatomia et la Fisiologia 3 (2): 201-265 - get paper here
  • Kawashita-Ribeiro, Ricardo Alexandre; Robson Waldemar Ávila, and Drausio Honorio Morais 2013. A New Snake of the Genus Helicops Wagler, 1830 (Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae) from Brazil. Herpetologica 69 (1): 80-90. - get paper here
  • Landgref-Filho, Paulo and Camila Aoki. 2011. Geographic Distribution: Helicops infrataeniatus (water snake). Herpetological Review 42 (3): 394 - get paper here
  • MORAES-DA-SILVA, ANTONIO; RENATA CECÍLIA AMARO, PEDRO M. SALES NUNES, CHRISTINE STRÜSSMANN, MAURO JUNIOR TEIXEIRA, ALBEDI JR. ANDRADE, VINÍCIUS SUDRÉ, RENATO RECODER, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES, FELIPE FRANCO CURCIO 2019. Chance, luck and a fortunate finding: a new species of watersnake of the genus Helicops Wagler, 1828 (Serpentes: Xenodontinae), from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands. Zootaxa 4651 (3): 445–470 - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Renato Silveira Bérnils, Julio Cesar de Moura-Leite 2017. RÉPTEIS DE CURITIBA: COLETÂNEA DE REGISTROS Hori Consultoria, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, 99 pp.
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Outeiral, Arlete B.; Rafael L. Balestrin, Lize H. Cappellari, Thales de Lema, Vanda Lúcia Ferreira 2018. Snake assemblage from Serra do Sudeste, Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 733-745 - get paper here
  • Regnet, R. A., F. M. Quintela, O. M. Entiauspe-Neto, V. H. Teixeira, F. L. Silveira & D. Loebmann 2017. Remarkable aggregation of squamates and caecilians associated with flood events during El Niño in southern Brazil. Salamandra 53 (4): 537-540 - get paper here
  • Rossman, D. A. 2000. Identity of the snake Calopisma septemvittatum FISCHER, 1879, and redescription of the lectotype of Helicops infrataeniatus JAN, 1865. Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst., 97: 123-129
  • Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos & Clarice Hofstadler-Deiques 2002. The ethmoidal region and cranial adaptations of the neotropical aquatic snake Helicops infrataeniatus Jan, 1865 (Serpentes, Colubridae). Amphibia-Reptilia 23 (1): 83-91 - get paper here
  • Schöneberg Y, Köhler G 2022. Distribution and identification of the species in the genus Helicops Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). Biodiversity Data Journal 10: e69234 - get paper here
  • Schöneberg, Y., & Köhler, G. 2021. Distribution and identification of the species in the genus Helicops Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). ARPHA Preprints, 1, e67869 - get paper here
  • Thaler, Rafaela; Henrique Folly, Caroline Galvão, Leandro Alves da Silva 2018. First predation report of Leptodactylus chaquensis (Anura, Leptodactylidae) by Helicops infrataeniatus (Squamata, Dipsadidae) and new records for this water snake. Herpetology Notes 11: 539-541 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1897. Ueber einige neue oder seltene Reptilien und Frösche der zoologischen Sammlung des Staates in München. Sitz. ber. Akad. Wiss. München 27: 203-220
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