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Hierophis viridiflavus (LACÉPÈDE, 1789)

IUCN Red List - Hierophis viridiflavus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesHierophis viridiflavus carbonarius (BONAPARTE 1833)
Hierophis viridiflavus viridiflavus (LACÉPÈDE 1789) 
Common NamesE: Green Whip Snake, Western Whip Snake, Dark Green Snake
G: Gelbgrüne Zornnatter
G: Schwarze Zornnatter [carbonarius]
Croatian: crna poljarica [carbonarius] 
SynonymCouleuvre verte et jaune LACÉPÈDE 1789 (fide DUMÉRIL et al. 1854)
Coluber atro-virens SHAW 1802: 449
Zamenis viridi-flavus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 686
Zamenis atrovirens — MÜLLER 1881
Zamenis atrovirens — BOULENGER 1887: 345
Zamenis gemonensis var. atrovirens — WERNER 1903: 250
Coluber gemonensis gyarosensis MERTENS 1968: 181
Coluber viridiflavus kratzeri KRAMER 1971
Coluber viridiflavus antoniimanujeli CAPOLONGO 1984
Coluber viridiflavus — KAHL et al. 1980: 232
Coluber viridiflavus —SCHÄTTI & WILSON 1986
Hierophis viridiflavus — SCHÄTTI 1988
Hierophis viridiflavus — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Haemorrhois viridiflavus — WELCH
Coluber viridiflavus viridiflavus — RIMPP 1979
Hierophis viridiflavus — NAGY et al. 2004
Hierophis viridiflavus — NAGY 2010 (pers. comm.)
Hierophis viridiflavus — MEZZASALMA et al. 2015
Hierophis viridiflavus viridiflavus — SPEYBROECK et al. 2020

Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius (BONAPARTE 1833)
Hierophis gyarosensis — SCHÄTTI 1988
Coluber gyarosensis — BÖHME 1993
Coluber gemonensis gyarosensis MERTENS 1968
Hierophis gyarosensis — NAGY et al. 2004
Dolichophis gyarosensis — NAGY et al. 2004
Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius — UTIGER & SCHÄTTI 2004
Coluber viridiflavus carbonarius — HENLE 1985
Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius — SCHLÜTER 2010
Dolichophis gyarosensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 239
Hierophis viridiflavus clade W — MEZZASALMA et al. 2015
Hierophis carbonarius — MEZZASALMA et al. 2015
Hierophis carbonarius — FORNASIERO et al. 2016
Hierophis carbonarius — MEZZASALMA et al. 2018
Hierophis carbonarius — NICOLA 2019
Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius — SPEYBROECK et al. 2020 
DistributionNE Spain, Andorra, France (+ Corsica), S Switzerland,
coastal Croatia (including some Adriatic islands), Slovenia,
Italy (+ Sardinia, Elba), Malta

carbonarius: Italy (Istria, west of the Apennine, Sicily), “Yugoslavia” (near Rovinj etc.); Type locality: Monti Euganei, Padua.

gyarosensis: Greece (Gyaros Island); Type locality: Gyaros Island

kratzeri: Montecristo Island

Type locality: S France  
TypesHolotype: nondesignated, location unknown.
Holotype: ZFMK 4332, paratypes: ZFMK, SMF, ZMB 79572 (formerly ZFMK) [gyarosensis]
Syntypes: ANSP 5427–5431, 5 specimens, Bonaparte colletion [carbonarius] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): see Schätti & Monsch 2004: 242. 
CommentNomenclature: SAVAGE (2003) suggested to reject Lacepède’s (1788) “Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes Ovipares” as a non-binominal work (Case 3226; Bull. Zool. Nom. 60 (2)). In 1987 and 2005 the ICZN ruled accordingly in opinions 1463 and 2104. However, this name has been retained via Opinion 1686.

Distribution: not on Cyprus fide F. BAIER (pers. comm.). See map for carbonarius and viridiflavus in Mezzasalma et al. (2015: Fig. 7: H. viridiflavus, H. gemonensis, and Mezzasalma et al. 2018: Fig. 1, including carbonarius). Not listed by SCHÄTTI & WILSON 1986. Not listed by Göcmen et al. (2009). For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013.

Type species: Coluber viridiflavus Lacepede is the type species of the genus Hierophis FITZINGER in BONAPARTE 1834: (in 1832-1841: 38).

Synonymy: UTIGER & SCHÄTTI (2004) synonymized Coluber gemonensis gyarosensis with Hierophis viridiflavus. Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic name Yeomansus Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected its use instead of Hierophis. Not listed by ENGELMANN et al. (1993), who list only Coluber laurenti.

Subspecies: Nicola 2019 in his key to Italian snakes did not key out or diagnose viridiflavus from carbonarius and only said that they show the “viridiflavus” or “carbonarius”phenotype. 
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