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Kinosternon stejnegeri HARTWEG, 1938

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Higher TaxaKinosternidae (Kinosterninae), Kinosternoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Arizona Mud Turtle
S: Casquito de Arizona 
SynonymKinosternon flavescens arizonense GILMORE 1922
Kinosternon flavescens stejnegeri HARTWEG 1938
Kinosternon flavescens stejnegeri — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 6
Kinosternon flavescens arizonense — IVERSON 1992: 224
Kinosternon arizonense — CROTHER 2000
Kinosternon arizonense — SERB, PHILLIPS & IVERSON 2001
Kinosternon arizonense — ERNST & LOVICH 2009
Kinosternon arizonense — TTWG 2014: 346
Kinosternon stejnegeri — TTWG 2017
Kinosternon stejnegeri — TTWG 2021 
DistributionUSA (S Arizona),
Mexico (Sonora)

arizonense: Type locality: Benson Locality Quarry, two miles south of Benson, Cochise County, Arizona" [USA]

stejnegeri: Type locality: Llano, Sonora.  
TypesHolotype: UMMZ 72235
Holotype: USNM 10463. a fossil [arizonense] 
CommentSynonymy: Iverson (1979) synonymized extant K. flavescens stejnegeri Hartweg 1938 with the Pliocene– Pleistocene fossil taxon, K. arizonense Gilmore 1923, based on similar morphology. Considered a subspecies, K. f. arizonense, by Iverson (1979b), it was subsequently recognized as a distinct species based on genetic analysis by Serb et al. (2001). Recently, McCord (2016) examined all available Pliocene material of K. arizonense and compared it with extant specimens, and concluded that the fossil material differs significantly from the extant material and is actually more similar morphologically to K. flavescens (sensu stricto). As a consequence, he restricted the name arizonense to the Pliocene fossils and resurrected the old name stejnegeri for the extant species. This conclusion was also tentatively accepted by Joyce and Bourque (2016), and we follow these recommendations here, accepting the resurrected name K. stejnegeri for the extant species previously known as K. arizonense (TTWG 2017).

Subspecies: SERB et al. (2001) suggested to elevate K. f. arizonense and K. f. durangoense to full “phylogenetic” species status.

Synonymy: partly after RHODIN et al. 2010.

Habitat: freshwater (swamps, quiet rivers) 
EtymologyNamed after Leonhard Hess Stejneger (1851-1943), Norwegian-born herpetologist who moved to the US in 1881 and became curator of reptiles at the Smithsonian Institution in 1889. 
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Ernst, Carl H.; Lovich, Jeffrey E. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada, 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 827 pp. - get paper here
  • Gilmore, C.W. 1922. A new fossil turtle, Kinosternon arizonense, from Arizona. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 63, Art. 5: 1-8 - get paper here
  • Hartweg, Norman 1938. Kinosternon flavescens stejnegeri, a new turtle from northern Mexico. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (371): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Iverson, J. B. 1979. On the validity of Kinosternon arizonense Gilmore. Copeia 1979 (1): 175-177 - get paper here
  • Legler, J.M.& Vogt, R.C. 2013. The Turtles of Mexico: Land and Freshwater Forms. University of California Press, 416 pp. - get paper here
  • Serb,J.M.; Phillips,C.A. & Iverson,J.B. 2001. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Kinosternon flavescens based on complete mitochondrial control region sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 18 (1): 149-162 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Anders G.J. Rhodin, John B. iverson, Roger Bour, Uwe Fritz, Arthur GeoRges, H. BRadley Shaffer, and Peter Paul van Dijk 2017. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (8th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Pritchard, P.C.H., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Ed Chelonian Research Monographs 7:1–292. doi: 10.3854/crm.7.checklist.atlas.v8.2017 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J.; van Dijk, P.P.; Iverson, J.B. & Shaffer, H.B. [turtle taxonomy working group] 2010. Turtles of the World, 2010 Update: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v3.2010 - get paper here
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