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Laudakia vulgaris (SONNINI & LATREILLE, 1801)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLaudakia vulgaris brachydactyla (HAAS 1951)
Laudakia vulgaris picea (PARKER 1935)
Laudakia vulgaris vulgaris (SONNINI & LATREILLE 1801) 
Common NamesE: Egyptian Rock Agama
G: Ägyptischer Hardun
E: Short-Toed Rock Agama [brachydactyla] 
SynonymStellio vulgaris SONNINI & LATREILLE 1801: 22
Stellio vulgaris — EVERSMANN 1834: 368
Stellio vulgaris — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 528
Stellio vulgaris — BOETTGER 1879: 78
Agama stellio brachydactyla HAAS 1951: 1052 (part)
Agama stellio vulgaris — SCHMIDT & MARX 1956: 26
Agama stellio vulgaris — WERMUTH 1967: 25
Laudakia stellio salehi WERNER in LACHMANN et al. 2006
Stellagama stellio salehi — BAIG et al. 2012: 227
Stellagama stellio vulgaris — BAIG et al. 2012: 228
Laudakia vulgaris — KARAMETA et al. 2022

Laudakia vulgaris brachydactyla (HAAS 1951)
Agama stellio brachydactyla HAAS 1951: 1052
Agama stellio brachydactyla — WERMUTH 1967: 24
Laudakia stellio brachydactyla — DIECKMANN 2010
Stellagama stellio brachydactyla — BAIG et al. 2012: 224
Laudakia stellio brachydactyla — AL-SHAMMARI 2012
Laudakia stellio brachydactyla — SINDACO et al. 2014
Laudakia vulgaris — KARAMETA et al. 2022

Laudakia vulgaris picea (PARKER 1935)
Agama stellio picea PARKER 1935: 137
Agama stellio picea — WETTSTEIN 1951: 436
Agama stellio picea — WERMUTH 1967: 24
Agama stellio picea — CHILDRESS 1970
Agama stellio picea — ESTERBAUER 1985
Laudakia stellio picea — VERHOEKS 2003
Stellagama stellio picea — BAIG et al. 2012: 226
Laudakia vulgaris — KARAMETA et al. 2022 
DistributionEgypt, Jordan, Israel, Syria; Type locality: restricted to “Unter-Ägypten” (MERTENS & WERMUTH 1960) and “El Amiria, Alexandria Gov., Lower Egypt.” by neotype designation (CROCHET et al. 2006).

brachydactyla: N Saudi Arabia, S Israel, Sinai, Jordan. Type locality: Jebel Lussan at the border between Israel and Sinai, south-south-west of Beer-Sheba.

picea: SW Syria, S Lebanon, N Israel, NW Jordan. Type locality: Black Lava Desert of Transjordania (32° 10’ N, 36° 40’ E).

salehi: Israel (Sinai); Type locality: “Sinai: 3 km from Sheikh Harun towards Watiya Pass, 28° 35’30’’ N, 33° 59’ E, 1650 m elevation”.  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesNeotype: FMNH 153134, designated by Crochet et al. 2006.
Holotype: HUJ (Hebrew University) Col!ection Nr.1801 [brachydactyla]
Syntypes: BMNH [picea]
Holotype: HUJ R 10732, male, probably summer 1968, probably coll. Abraham Haim [salehi] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (vulgaris). Medium size; head and body depressed; dull brown color, vertebral blotches broken and indistinct; vertebral band of enlarged scales narrow; tail segment of two whorls [BAIG et al. 2012].

Diagnosis (brachydactyla). Head slightly depressed; wide band of enlarged vertebral scales, enlarged body scales heterogeneous, irregular, usually smooth, transverse rows of enlarged scales hardly distinguishable; usually 5–7 yellowish vertebral bloches; tail segment of two whorls which may contain a third in distal half; 3–5 rows of callous precloacal glands and a stripe at abdomen in males only [BAIG et al. 2012].

Diagnosis (picea). Smaller size than other subspecies; head and body much depressed; colour black; vertebral scales heterogeneous, irregular, keeled, larger than other small dorsals, mid-vertebral moderately large and interrupted at regular intervals by transverse rows of enlarged mucronate scales; tail segment of two scale whorls , tail length about 20% more than the distance of snout-vent [BAIG et al. 2012].

Diagnosis (salehi). Broad band of enlarged vertebral scales, body scales heterogenous, tail segment of two scale rows. Differs from the similar S. s. brachydactyla as follows: band of somewhat enlarged vertebral scales with transverse rows of greatly enlarged scales, separated by smaller scales, enlarged scales on the left and right side; longer toes with an average of 18.5 subdigitalia; dorsal colouration with light markings forming numerous narrow transverse bars. This taxon differs from Stellagama s. vulgaris in having dorsal enlarged scales over the pelvis juxtaposed in transverse rows [BAIG et al. 2012]. Note, however, that Kadry et al. 2020 synonymized salehi with vulgaris. 
CommentSynonymy: Kadry et al. 2020 synonymized Stellagama stellio salehi with S. s. vulgaris. Karameta et al. 2022 included brachydactyla, picea, and salehi in S. vulgaris, but called the former subspecies “morphological subspecies”. 
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