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Leiocephalus raviceps COPE, 1863

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Higher TaxaLeiocephalidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLeiocephalus raviceps raviceps COPE 1863
Leiocephalus raviceps delavarai GARRIDO 1973
Leiocephalus raviceps jaumei SCHWARTZ & GARRIDO 1968
Leiocephalus raviceps klinikowskii SCHWARTZ 1960
Leiocephalus raviceps uzzelli SCHWARTZ 1960 
Common NamesE: Pallid Curlytail, Mountain Curlytail Lizard 
SynonymLiocephalus raviceps COPE 1863: 183
Leiocephalus raviceps — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 446
Leiocephalus raviceps — RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999: 130

Leiocephalus raviceps delavarai GARRIDO 1973
Leiocephalus raviceps delavarai — HEDGES et al. 2019

Leiocephalus raviceps jaumei SCHWARTZ & GARRIDO 1968
Leiocephalus raviceps jaumei — HEDGES et al. 2019

Leiocephalus raviceps klinikowskii SCHWARTZ 1960: 77
Leiocephalus raviceps klinikowskii — HEDGES et al. 2019

Leiocephalus raviceps uzzelli SCHWARTZ 1960: 70
Leiocephalus raviceps uzzelli — HEDGES et al. 2019 
DistributionE Cuba with disjunct populations in Matanzas and Pinar Delaware Rio Provinces.

raviceps: Cuba (southeastern coast from Bahia de Guantánamo to north of Cajobabo and north to Jamaica). Type locality: Eastern Cuba; restricted by Gundlach, 1880, to mountains near Guantánamo, Guantánamo Province, Cuba.

delavarai: central Holguin Province. Type locality: “arenal Los Cocos, a seis km de Gibara”

jaumei: SW Pinar del Rio Province.

klinikowskii: N Matanzas Province.

uzzelli: SE coast from Bahia de Guantánamo to La Socapa.

INCERTAE SEDIS: Specimens from Baracoa and Cayo Lanzanillo northeast of Isabela de Sagua have not been assigned to subspecies.  
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 8601-03, MCZ 10928, USNM 4162.
Holotype: CZACC = IZ 2774 [delavarai]
Holotype: CZACC = IZ 349 [jaumei]
Holotype: AMNH 83326 [klinikowskii]
Holotype: AMNH 79321 [uzzelli] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 71 mm, in females to 59 mm); sexual dichromatism pronounced, males with 2 pairs of enlarged postanals; lateral fold present, with smaller scales in fold; dorsals strongly imbricate, slightly mucronate, heavily keeled; ventrals decidedly larger than dorsals, broader than long, imbricate, smooth, cycloid; median dorsal crest scales not enlarged, not attenuate, slightly imbricate, about same height as median dorsal caudal scales, 55-74 in occiput-vent distance; one-half midbody scales 27-39; supraoculars 5-8 (strongly modally 7); loreals 2-8; temporals 8-16; supraorbital semicircles complete or incomplete; parietals usually in contact; median head scales 4--6 (strongly modally 4); 1-5 enlarged preauriculars. Dorsum (males) dark tan, yellowish tan, very pale yellowish tan, brown, gray, or whitish, with or without sharply distinct, dark brown lateral fields (with scattered yellow, red, cream, or orangish scales) or overlaid with circular to subcircular inky black spots (1 subspecies) from neck to groin and onto upper surface of hindlimbs and sides and underside of tail, delimiting dorsal zone; dorsal crest scales immaculate yellow or cream (2 subspecies); dorsal zone with about 13 paired, dark brown to black dashes or paired blotches, either conspicuous or reduced to black dots; a pair of paler dorsolateral zones, making the dorsal zone more conspicuous, above lateral fields; ventral to lateral fields, a whitish, longitudinal, lateral band, with included dark dashes 2-3 scales in length, from auricular opening to groin, outlined by a faintly gray ventrolateral band; upper side of head with either dark markings (especially outlining supraorbital areas) or dark suffusions; postorbital blotch black to slightly gray or hollowed, at times outlined anteriorly by a vertical, white line; supralabials suffused with tan, infralabials with deeper tan along sutures, giving mottled appearance; 3 white bands radiating ventrally from eye, the posterior 2 separated by a black bar from middle of eye; venter pale gray to white with transverse lines of white scales; throat immaculate white to pale gray, or with a few gray lines or dots, or with areas suffused with darker gray across chin and throat, with a few scattered cream scales; upper surfaces of limbs tan, hindlimbs with short, brown dashes and scattered, cream-colored scales onto upper surface of pes, or blackish dots; fingers very pale in 1 subspecies; dorsum (females) more distinctly lineate than in males, including an intensification of all pattern elements; postorbital blotch reduced to a slightly darker area; venter with dark brown dots; throats with dark gray dots, more or less aligned into longitudinal rows, or (1 subspecies) dotted with black or brown to dark gray, discrete, subcircular spots (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 446). 
CommentFor illustrations see Barbour and Ramsden, 1919; Schwartz, 1960. 
  • Bakkegard, Kristin A.; David A. Johnson, and Daniel G. Mulcahy 2020. A New Locality, Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, for the Rare Lizard Leiocephalus onaneyi (Guantánamo Striped Curlytail) and Notes on its Natural History. CARIBBEAN NATURALIST (79): 1–22
  • Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213. - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1919. Herpetological notes. Proc. New England zool. Club 7: 7-13 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1863. Contributions to Neotropical saurology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14 [1862]: 176-188. - get paper here
  • Garrido, O.H. 1973. Nuevas subespecies de reptiles para Cuba. Torreia, n.s. 30:1-31.
  • Gundlach, J. 1880. Contribución a la erpetologia cubana. G. Montiel, La Habana: 98pp. - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Pregill,G.K. 1992. Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 84: 1-69 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes (ed.) 1999. The iguanid lizards of Cuba. University Press of Florida, 428 pp.
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1960. Variation in the Cuban lizard Leiocephalus raviceps Cope. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 73:67-82. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Garrido, O.H. 1968. An undescribed subspecies of Leiocephalus raviceps Cope (Sauria: Iguanidae) from western Cuba. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 81:23-30. - get paper here
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