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Leiolepis belliana (HARDWICKE & GRAY, 1827)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Leiolepididae or Leiolepidinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: (Beauty, Common) Butterfly Lizard
G: Prachtschmetterlingsagame 
SynonymUromastyx Belliana HARDWICKE & GRAY 1827: 220
Uromastix Belliana — HARDWICKE & GRAY 1835
Leiolepis bellii GRAY 1845
Liolepis bellii — CANTOR 1847
Liolepis belliana — BOULENGER 1890
Liolepis belliana — DE ROOIJ 1915: 135
Liolepis belliana — SWORDER 1933
Leiolepis belliana belliana — SMITH 1935: 238
Leiolepis belliana belliana — MERTENS 1961
Liolepis belliana — TAYLOR 1963: 905
Leiolepis belliana — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 285
Leiolepis belliana — COX et al. 1998: 105
Liolepis belliana — LIM & LIM 1999
Leiolepis belliana belliana — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 81
Leiolepis cf. belliana — GRISMER et al. 2007
Leiolepis belliana — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 
DistributionThailand, Myanmar (= Burma), Laos ?, Cambodia, Vietnam,
Indonesia (Sumatra, Pulau Bangka),
Malaysia (Pulau Tioman, Pulau Langkawi, Pulau Besar)

Introduced to Florida (BOUNDY et al. 2012, Gibbons et al. 2009).

Type locality: Penang.  
Reproductionsexual; may be parthenogenetic (Cuellar & Kluge 1972, Hall 1970) 
TypesHolotype: unknown (fide NGUYEN et al. 2009) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: “Auf grauem oder olivfarbenem Grunde längsovale hellgelbliche Flecken mit schwarzer Umrandung; sie sind in Längsreihen angeordnet und können zu 3 Längsbändern (Jugendkleid) zusammenfließen. Flanken bei Männchen mit 7-9 orangeroten und schwarzblauen Querbändern. 7-13 (gewöhnlich 8-10) Schuppen quer um die Mitte auf der Unterseite der Tibia, 3-4 Dorsalschuppen entsprechen der Breite einer Bauchschuppe, 13-20 Femoralporen jederseits.” (Mertens 1961: 507).

Diagnosis: “Die relativ langköpfigste und grobschuppigste aller 5 Arten.Komplette Flankenzeichnung aus breiten, zumeist 7-9 orangeroten und schwarzen Querflecken zwischen Vorder- und Hinterbeinen in beiden Geschlechtern (Abb. 3, 4a). Sexualdifferenzen in Zeichnung und Färbung geringfügig.” (Peters 1971: 115).

Diagnosis (belliana): “Die einzige bisexuelle Leiolepis-Form, die auch im adulten Zustand eine 3-streifige Rückenzeichnung behält. Zwischen den zumeist sehr deutlichen schmalen und in sich ozellierten Dorsalstreifen stehen helle Ozellenflecke in je 1-2 Längsreihen. Bei den Jungtieren sind auch diese Längsreihen zu Streifen verbunden: Exemplare aus dein südlichen Teil der Malayischen Halbinsel spwie von Banka und Sumatra neigen zur Verdüsterung der Rückenfärbung und -- im Zusammenhang damit -- zur stärkeren Vereinzelung und Verkleinerung (oder Abschwächung) der Flecken.” (Peters 1971: 115, who provided a separate diagnoses for the ocellata as a subspecies of belliana). 
CommentDistribution: Has been erroneously (?) reported from India. A report from Pulau Tioman remains unconfirmed (fide HIEN et al. 2001; GRISMER et al. 2002).

Subspecies: Leiolepis belliana rubritaeniata MERTENS 1961 is now considered as a subspecies of L. reevesi or as valid species (BÖHME 2003). Despite Leiolepis ocellata being nested within L. belliana, Grismer et al. 2014 treat it as a valid species because L. ocellata is morphologically distinct from L. belliana, has a different karyotype, and is genetically exclusive in each dataset

Karyotype: Leiolepis ocellata has 34 chromosomes while L. belliana has 36; However, the number does not appear to be completely clear. Some authors, namely Aranyavalai et al. 2004, found (2n = 36) in both L. ocellata und L. belllana (PAUWELS & CHIMSUNCHART 2007). 
EtymologyNamed after Thomas Bell (1792-1880), a British naturalist and dental surgeon who worked at Guy's Hospital, London (1816-1860). He became Professor of Zoology at King's College (1834) and described many ofthe reptiles Darwin collected. He was a friend ofGray and President of the Linnean Society (Beolens et al. 2011).  
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