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Lepidodactylus nakahiwalay ELIADES, BROWN, HUANG & SILER, 2021

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Lubang Scaly-toed Geckos. 
SynonymLepidodactylus nakahiwalay ELIADES, BROWN, HUANG & SILER 2021
Lepidodactylus sp. 3 — OLIVER et al. 2018: 4 
DistributionPhilippines (Lubang island)

Type locality: Sitio Dangay, Barangay Vigo, Municipality of Lubang, Occidental Mindoro Province, Lubang Island, Philippines (13.783048, 120.172468)  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. PNM 9876 (formerly KU 320411; CDS Field No. 3931), adult male, collected 29 April 2009 at 98 m by CDS, J.B. Fernandez, and RMB. Paratype (paratopotype).—KU 320410 (CDS Field No. 3930), adult female, collected 29 April 2009 by CDS, J.B.
Fernandez, and RMB. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Lepidodactylus nakahiwalay can be distin-
guished from congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) body size moderate to large (SVL 40.6–40.8 mm); (2) snout–forearm length moderate, 34.2–34.3% SVL; (3) total arm length short, 18.1–20.2% SVL; (4) crus length moderate, 11.8% SVL; (5) total leg length moderate, 23.5– 26.1% SVL; (6) Finger III length long, 29.7–35.4% total arm length; (7) Toe IV length moderate, 33.0–36.5% total leg length; (8) head length moderate, 26.4–26.5% SVL; (9) head width moderate, 67.3–69.4% head length; (10) snout length long, 43.5–44.9% head length; (11) eye diameter large, 22.4– 25.0% head length; (12) midbody dorsal scale count within one eye diameter 22 or 23; (13) paravertebral scale count within one eye diameter 19 or 20; (14) midbody ventral scale count within one eye diameter 14–16; (15) circumnasal scales 4; (16) Finger III total scansors 7; (17) Toe IV total scansors 8 or 9; (18) precloacofemoral pores in males 23; and (19) rostral scale not in contact with nostril. (ELIADES et al. 2021)

Comparisons. Characters distinguishing Lepidodactylus nakahiwalay from all other Philippine species of Lepidodactylus are summarized in Table 1 and additional comprehensive comparisons are available in Supplemental Table 1. The new species most closely resembles L. bisakol; however, it differs in several characters, including having fewer paravertebral scales (19–20 vs. 21–23), a smaller relative snout–forearm length (34.2–34.3% SVL vs. 35.1– 39.1%), relative crus length (11.8% SVL vs. 12.3–16.5%), and relative total leg length (23.5–26.1% SVL vs. 26.3– 31.9%), a larger Toe IV length relative to total leg length (33.0–36.5% leg length vs. 25.7–32.7%), and a larger head width relative to head height (178.6–180.0% head height vs. 144.2–176.3%).
Considering all other Philippine congeners, L. nakahiwalay can be distinguished readily from L. aureolineatus, L. herrei herrei, L. herrei medianus, L. labialis, L. lugubris, and L. planicaudus by having a rostral scale separated from the nostril (vs. contacting); from L. aureolineatus, L. balioburius, L. h. herrei, and L. h. medianus by having more midbody dorsal scales (22 or 23 vs. ,22); from L. h. herrei, L. h. medianus, and L. bakingibut by having more paravertebral scales (19 or 20 vs. ,19); from L. babuyanensis, L. h. herrei, L. h. medianus, and L. labialis by having more midbody ventral scales (14–16 vs. ,14); from L. bakingibut by having fewer ventral scales (12–15 vs. 16); from L. aureolineatus, L. christiani, and L. h. herrei by having more circumorbital scales (31–34 vs. ,31); from L. aureolineatus, L. h. herrei, L. labialis, L. lugubris, and L. planicaudus by having more circumnasal scales (4 vs. 3); from L. aureolineatus, L. balioburius, L. h. herrei, L. h. medianus, L. labialis, L. lugubris, and L. bakingibut by having fewer total scansors on Finger III (7 vs. .7); from L. aureolineatus, L. h. herrei, L. h. medianus, L. labialis, and L. lugubris by having fewer total scansors on Toe IV (8 or 9 vs. .9); from L. aureolineatus, L. h. herrei, L. h. medianus, L. labialis, L. lugubris, and L. bakingibut by having a moderate number of precloacofemoral pores in males (23 vs. ,14 [L. labialis], .24 [L. aureolineatus, L. h. herrei, L. h. medianus, L. lugubris, L. bakingibut]); from L. labialis and L. lugubris by having a linear pore series shape (vs. v-shaped); from L. labialis by having no cleft on the rostral scale (vs. cleft), more webbing between Toes II and III (1 or 2 vs. 0), and more cloacal spurs (2 or 3 vs. 0); from L. aureolineatus, L. christiani, L. h. herrei, L. h. medianus, L. lugubris, and L. planicaudus by having a larger axilla–groin distance relative to head length (193.5– 198.1% head length vs. ,188.2%); from L. aureolineatus, L. balioburius, L. christiani, L. h. medianus, L. bakingibut, and L. lugubris by having a smaller relative snout–forearm length (34.2–34.3% SVL vs. .34.4%); from L. aureolineatus, L. balioburius, L. christiani, L. h. herrei, L. h. medianus, L. lugubris, and L. planicaudus by having a larger relative head length (26.4–26.5% SVL vs. ,26.4%); from L. aureolineatus, L. h. herrei, L. h. medianus, L. lugubris, L. bakingibut, and L. planicaudus by having a larger snout length relative to head length (43.5–44.9% head length vs. ,43.3%). (ELIADES et al. 2021)

Measurements and scale counts of holotype (in mm). Snout–vent length 40.6; axilla–groin distance 21.2; tail length 40.7; tail width 5.0; tail depth 3.2; snout–forearm length 13.9; upper arm length 4.0; forearm length 4.2; thigh length 5.8; crus length 4.8; Finger III length 2.9; Toe IV length 3.5; head length 10.7; head width 7.2; head height 4.0; eye–ear distance 3.5; eye–nostril distance 3.6; snout length 4.8; interorbital distance 1.7; internarial distance 1.6; ear diameter 0.4; eye diameter 2.4; midbody dorsal scales 22; paravertebral scales 19; midbody ventral scales 16; ventral scales 15; supralabials 14; infralabials 12; circumorbital scales 31; circumnasals 4; snout scales 5; chin scales 9; Finger III total scansors 7; Finger III divided scansors 5; Toe IV total scansors 8; Toe IV divided scansors 3; precloacofemoral pores 23; cloacal spurs 3. (ELIADES et al. 2021)

Variation. Variation in mensural and meristic characters is summarized in Table 1. Among the two specimens examined, we observed variation in the number of midbody dorsal, paravertebral, midbody ventral, ventral, supralabial, infralabial, circumorbital, snout, and chin scales, Finger divided III scansors, Toe IV total scansors, and Toe IV divided scansors (Supplemental Table 1).
(ELIADES et al. 2021) 
CommentDistribution: see map in Eliades et al. 2022: 96 (Fig. 2). 
EtymologyNamed after the Tagalog term for isolated and is in reference to the biogeographically distinct and isolated island of Lubang, which is believed to be surrounded by deep-ocean channels and never in historical contact with surrounding paleoisland landmasses. 
References
  • Eliades, S. J., Brown, R. M., Huang, W. S., & Siler, C. D. 2021. Taxonomic Revision of Scaly-toed Geckos (Reptilia: Gekkonidae: Lepidodactylus) in the Northern Philippines, with Descriptions of Four New Species. Herpetological Monographs, 35(1), 90-111 - get paper here
 
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