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Leptotyphlops emini (BOULENGER, 1890)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Leptotyphlopinae, Leptotyphlopini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Emin Pasha’s worm snake 
SynonymGlauconia emini BOULENGER 1890
Glauconia emini — BOULENGER 1893: 64
Stenostoma emini — TORNIER 1896: 67
Glauconia monticola CHABANAUD 1916: 366
Leptotyphlops nigricans — SCHMIDT 1923 (fide ROUX-ESTEVE 1975)
Leptotyphlops emini — LOVERIDGE 1933: 223
Leptotyphlops emini emini — LOVERIDGE 1941: 177
Leptotyphlops conjunctus conjunctus — BROADLEY & BROADLEY, 1976: 490 (part.)
Leptotyphlops emini — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 29
Leptotyphlops emini — BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007: 34
Leptotyphlops monticolus — BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007: 35
Leptotyphlops emini — ADALSTEINSSON, BRANCH, TRAPE, VITT & HEDGES 2009
Leptotyphlops monticolus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 368
Leptotyphlops emini — WALLACH et al. 2014: 367
Leptotyphlops emini — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 366 
DistributionRepublic of South Sudan (RSS), south through W Uganda to W Tanzania, Kenya, E/S Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), extreme N Zambia.

monticolus: Type locality: Volcans de Kivori, Congo-Belge [= E. Kivu Region, Democratic Republic of the Congo], elevation 1500 m.

Type locality: Karagwe, Victoria Nyanza, Tanzania.  
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.1.10.87 (designated by BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007)
Holotype: MNHN 1916.213, collected by Gromier and Le Petit, 1911 [monticolus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A member of the Leptotyphlops nigricans species group. Differs from L. kafubi in its fused parietal bones, lower middorsal counts and having the nostril separated from the rostral by a longer suture. 
CommentSynonymy: Has been synonymized previously with Leptotyphlops nigricans (e.g. HAHN 1980, BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991).

Habitat. Savanna.

BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007 recognized Glauconia monticola as valid species but gave an insufficient diagnosis: “A member of the Leptotyphlops nigricans species group, distinguished from neighbouring L. emini by its relatively higher middorsal counts.” 
EtymologyNamed after Eduard Schnitzer (1840-1892), a German physician who worked in Albania (then under Turkish rule) and who became later known as Emin Pasha, Emin meaning "faithful one." He also traveled to Africa where he became Governor (”Pasha”) of the southern Sudanese province of Equatoria (1878). Emin's claim to fame was that he abolished slavery in the territories he commanded-which is probably why he was beheaded by slave traders in the region of Lake Tanganyika. 
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1890. Description of a new Snake of the Genus Glauconia Gray, obtained by Dr. Emin Pasha on the Victoria Nyanza. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 6: 91-93. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1919. Descriptions d’Ophidien et d'un Batracien nouveaux de Congo. Rev. zool. afr., Bruxelles, 7 (2): 186-187
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Broadley, D.G. 1998. The reptilian fauna of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa). In: Schmidt, K.P. and Noble, G.K., Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo... [reprint of the 1919 and 1923 papers]. SSAR Facsimile reprints in Herpetology, 780 pp.
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Broadley, Sheila 1999. A review of the Arican wormsnakes from South of Latitude 12°S (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Syntarsus 5: 1-36
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Wallach, V. 2007. A revision of the genus Leptotyphlops in northeastern Africa and southwestern Arabia (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 1408: 1–78 - get paper here
  • Chabanaud,P. 1916. Enumération des Ophidiens non encore étudiés de l'Afrique occidentale, appartenant aux Collections du Muséum avec le description des espèces et des variétés nouvelles. Bull. Mus. natn. Hist. nat. Paris 22: 362-382 - get paper here
  • Chippaux, Jean-Philippe & Kate Jackson 2019. Snakes of Central and Western Africa. Johns Hopkins University Press, 448 pp. [detaileld review in HR 51 (1): 161] - get paper here
  • Hahn D. E. & V. WALLACH, 1998. Comments on the systematics of Old World Leptotyphlops (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae), with description of a new species. Hamadryad 23: 50-62
  • Hallermann, J. & M. O. Roedel 1995. A new species of Leptotyphlops (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) of the longicaudus-group from West Africa. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. Ser. A. (Biol.) 532: 1-8. - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1941. New geckos (Phelsuma & Lygodactylus), snake (Leptotyphlops), and frog (Phrynobatrachus) from Pemba Island, Est Africa. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 54: 175-178 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1956. On snakes collected in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan by J.S. Owen, Esq. Sudan Notes Rec. 36: 37-56 [1955]
  • Loveridge,A. 1933. Reports on the scientific Results of an Expedition to the Southwestem Highlands of Tanganyika Territory. VII. Herpetology. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 74: 197-415 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Pitman,C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp.
  • Roux-Estève,R. 1975. Serpents: Typhlopidae et Leptotyphlopidae. Fondation pour Favoriser les Recherches Scientifiques en Afrique, Bruxelles, Exploration du Parc Natl. des Virunga fasc. 24 (2.s.) 61 pp.
  • Scortecci ,G. 1939. Spedizione zoologica del Marchese Saverio patrizi nel Basso Giuba e nell'Oltre Giuba. Giugno-agosto 1934. XII. Rettili Ofidi. Annali Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Giacomo Doria 58: 263-291
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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