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Liolaemus quilmes ETHERIDGE, 1993

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymLiolaemus quilmes ETHERIDGE 1993: 152
Liolaemus (Eulaemus) quilmes — SCHULTE et al. 2000
Liolaemus quilmes — CAMARGO et al. 2012 
DistributionArgentina (Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca)

Type locality: 3.2 km South of Animaná, Ruta Nac. 40, Dpto
Cafayate.  
ReproductionOviparous. 
TypesHolotype: FML 2644 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Within the L. darwinii complex Liolaemus quilmes may be distinguished from L. olongasta, L. laurenti and L. darwinii by the absence of intense black pigment within the antehumeral fold of adult males, from L. darwinii, L. koslowskyi and L. abaucan by the absence ofenlarged postscapular spots in adult males, from L. uspallatensis by its larger, more strongly keeled dorsal body scales, and from L. ornatus and L. irregularis in having precloacal pores in fewer than 10 per cent, rather than more than 95 per cent of the females. Liolaemus quilmes further differs from L. irregularis in having a bold, symmetrical dorsal pattern in adult males rather than irregular blotches, and from L. ornatus in lacking conspcuously darker ground color on the head and neck in adult males. (Etheridge 1993: 153).

Variation. Maximum adult size, and variation in tail/total length, scale counts and precloacal pore counts provided in Tables 1-4. Small males, 26-42 mm snout-vent length, greyish, with stripes and spots indistinct or absent, similar to females except ventrolateral light stripe fragmented or absent; males 43 mm and longer with distinct dorsal pattern. (Etheridge 1993: 153).

Coloration: Adult pattern subject to some geographic variation. Adult males in valleys of Rio Calchequi and Rio Santa Maria highly variable, but most with pattern like holotype: middorsal and dorsolateral light stripes prominent, with whitish or yellowish scales, becoming obscure posteriorly; paravertebral spots prominent but often somewhat broken up, and prescapular spot somewhat enlarged and darkened; some individuals with stripes obscured by extreme fragmentation of dorsal pattern, some with lateral spots all present and elongate, sometimes forming a dark stripe. Throat immaculate, or with scattered dark spots or streaks, the variation independent of size; ventral body nearly always immaculate. PI. 1.1 shows an adult male from the type locality.
Here follows a description of a living adult male, observed on December 22, 1992. As viewed from a distance of about 4 meters, perched on a grey rock in full sun, the color pattern is very striking: sides ofhead and forearms bright orange and brown, neck and anterior body with bold pattern of rich, dark brown to black and creamy-yellow stripes and spots; sides ofbody below dorsolateral stripes brick red, with iridesceent blue scales below stripes and white spots lower down, the blue continuing onto the tail. A more detailed description with the animal in hand follows: top of head tan, flecked with brown spots; sides ofhead orange, with radiating brownish streaks below eye, continuing down across upper and lower labials; anterior and upper surface offorelimbs orange, with brownish spots and creamy-yellow scales; dorsolateral stripes on anterior halfofbody with bright, creamy-yellow scales, discontinuous posteriorly; ground color between stripes reddish-brown, with spots of dark and light tan; paravertebral spots intense dark brown, with creamy-yellow posterior borders; ventrolateral stripes on neck creamy-yellow; lateral spots on neck joined with black prescapular spot, the latter not much enlarged; ground color ofsides ofbody below dorsolateral stripes dark brick-red above, becoming lighter below; iridescent light blue spots, one to three scales large, scattered below stripes, a few also within the dorsolateral stripes; lower down on sides are white spots, including those aligned in the position of ventrolateral stripe; general appearance oflower sides is that of a bold reticulum; upper surface of hind limbs brown with blue-grey spots and a few light blue scales; light blue scales continue back above hind limbs and on sides of tail; posterior thigh white stripe bordered above and below by brown, not continuing onto lower side oftail; throat and ventral body surfaces white, except for orange and brown markings on sides; inferior surface ofthighs pale yellow. This individual, along with several other males and females ofL. quilmes and L. huacahuasicus, had been living in an outdoor enclosure in Yerba Buena, Tucuman Province, for about 12 months. Other males of this species in the enclosure, all from Km 98 on Ruta Prav. 307, Tucuman Province, exhibited a similar pattern, but colors not as vivid.
Females with standard pattern persisting in a faded condition, or, more often, lost entirely except for a prominent ventrolateral light stripe; females as small as 31 mm snout-vent length may have pattern virtually absent. Throat spotted or immaculate in females 40 mm snout-vent length or smaller, throat and ventral body immaculate in larger animals. Gravid females with orange or reddish-orange pigment on the sides of head and body.
Populations from valley of Rio de Las Conchas with about the same variation as above, except both sexes have greater tendency for lateral spots to form dark stripes. Specimens collected in three different years from this valley, where the substrate surface is colored red from the Sierra Carahuasi to the east, appeared to have a reddish ground color, especially the soles and digits, and the color remained after several years in preservative, but later inspection revealed that the color was due to a fine red dust adherent to the integument; this phenomenon was observed in Cnemidophorus longicaudus from the same region.
Populations from Campo Arenal (Fig. 2) most distinctive: both sexes with light greyish ground color; adult males not as variable as elsewhere, the standard pattern persisting with less modification; no bright orange, yellow, brick red, or blue as in males elsewhere: throat and ventral body usually with very bold, dark brown spots or reticulum: females with about same range of variation as elsewhere, but with standard pattern more often remaining distinct. Specimens exhibiting a pattern intermediate between those on the Campo Arenal and those from the valley of the Rio Santa Mafia have been collected between Pie de Módanos, at the eastern edge ofthe Campo Arenal, and Punta de Balasto, near the southern terminus of the Rio Santa Maria (Etheridge 1993: 154). 
CommentMember of the darwinii group of Liolaemus. 
EtymologyNamed after the Indian tribe of the Quilmes. 
References
  • Abdala, C.S. 2005. Una nueva especie del género Liolaemus perteneciente al complejo darwinii (Iguania:Liolaemidae) de la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina. Revista Española de Herpetologia 19:5-17 - get paper here
  • Abdala, C.S. 2007. Phylogeny of the boulengeri group (Iguania: Liolaemidae, Liolaemus) based on morphological and molecular characters. Zootaxa 1538: 1-84 - get paper here
  • ABDALA, CRISTIAN SIMÓN; ANDRÉS SEBASTIÁN QUINTEROS,, FEDERICO ARIAS, SABRINA PORTELLI & ANTONIO PALAVECINO 2011. A new species of the Liolaemus darwinii group (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Salta Province, Argentina. Zootaxa 2968: 26–38 - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Camargo, Arley; Luciano J. Avila, Mariana Morando, and Jack W. Sites, Jr 2012. Accuracy and Precision of Species Trees: Effects of Locus, Individual, and Base Pair Sampling on Inference of Species Trees in Lizards of the Liolaemus darwinii Group (Squamata, Liolaemidae). Systematic Biology 61: 272-288 - get paper here
  • Etheridge, R. 1993. Lizards of the Liolaemus darwinii complex (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae) in Northern Argentina. MUSEO REGIONALE DI SCIENZE NATURALI BOLLETTINO (TURIN). 11 (1): 137-199
  • Etheridge, R. 2000. A review of lizards of the Liolaemus wiegmannii group (Squamata, Iguania, Tropiduridae), and a history of morphological change in the sand-dwelling species. Herpetological Monographs 14: 293-352 - get paper here
  • Halloy, M., C. Guerra & C. Robles 2007. Nuptial Coloration in Female Liolaemus quilmes (Iguania: Liolaemidae): Ambiguity and keeping males intersted? Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 43(3): 110-118. - get paper here
  • Halloy, M.; Cecilia Robles, Fabiana Cuezzo 2006. Diet in two syntopic neotropical lizard species of Liolaemus (Liolaemidae): interspecific and intersexual differences. Revista Española de Herpetología 20: 47-56 - get paper here
  • Halloy, Monique 2012. Visual display variations in neotropical lizards, Liolaemus quilmes (Iguania: Liolaemidae): relation to sex and season. The Herpetological Journal 22 (4): 267-270 - get paper here
  • Halloy, Monique and Cecilia Robles 2002. Spatial distribution in a neotropical lizard, Liolaemus quilmes (Liolaemidae): site fidelity and overlapping among males and females. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 38(4):118-129 - get paper here
  • Halloy, Monique. 2006. Liolaemus quilmes Longevity. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 88-89 - get paper here
  • Halloy, Monique; Robles, Cecilia; Salica, María José; Semhan, Romina; Juárez Heredia, Viviana; Vicente, Natalin 2013. Aportes en el estudio del comportamiento y ecología de lagartijas de los géneros Liolaemus y Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemini). Cuadernos de Herpetología 27 (1): - get paper here
  • JUÁREZ-HEREDIA, VIVIANA; CECILIA ROBLES, MONIQUE HALLOY 2013. A new species of Liolaemus from the darwinii group (Iguania: Liolaemidae), Tucumán province, Argentina. Zootaxa 3681: 524–538 - get paper here
  • Robles, C. I. & M. Halloy 2012. Lack of evidence for mate choice in a neotropical lizard, Liolaemus quilmes (Iguania: Liolaemidae): weight, colour and familiarity. Salamandra 48 (2): 115-121 - get paper here
  • Robles, Cecilia I.; Halloy, Monique 2010. Core area overlap in a neotropical lizard, Liolaemus quilmes: relationship with territoriality and reproductive strategy. The Herpetological Journal 20: 243-248 - get paper here
  • Salica, María José; Monique Halloy 2009. Nuptial coloration in female Liolaemus quilmes (Iguania: Liolaemidae): relation to reproductive state. Basic and Applied Herpetology 23: 141-149
  • SCHULTE II, JAMES A.; J. ROBERT MACEY, ROBERT E. ESPINOZA AND ALLAN LARSON 2000. Phylogenetic relationships in the iguanid lizard genus Liolaemus: multiple origins of viviparous reproduction and evidence for recurring Andean vicariance and dispersal. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69: 75–102 - get paper here
 
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