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Loxopholis snethlageae (AVILA-PIRES, 1995)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Ecpleopodinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPortuguese: Calango, Lagartixa, Lagarto 
SynonymLeposoma snethlageae AVILA-PIRES 1995: 411
Leposoma snethlageae — RODRIGUES & AVILA-PIRES 2005
Leposoma snethlageae — RIBEIRO-JUNIOR & AMARAL 2016
Loxopholis snethlageae — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016
Loxopholis snethlageae — DIAGO-TORO et al. 2021 
DistributionBrazil (SW Amazonas)

Type locality: E of Porto Urucu, near Petrobras RUC-2, Rio Urucu, Amazonas, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: MPEG 15858 Paratypes: RMNH 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Leposoma having a moderately large interparietal scale, with parallel or slightly diverging lateral margins. Supralabials followed by a scale about as large as adjacent temporals. Prefrontals form a short to moderately long medial suture, that between frontoparietals with approximately same length or shorter. Fourth pair of chinshields large. Dorsals mostly hexagonal to rectangular (in oblique position), 31-36 along a longitudinal row. Ventrals 21-23. Scales around midbody 24-26. Flanks completely covered by a wide dark band (Avila-Pires 1995).

Description. Gymnophthalmid with SVL of 32 mm in the holotype, which represents the largest male, 33 mm in the largest female (RMNH 25502). Head 0.20-0.22 times SVL, 1.4-1.5 times as long as wide, 1.2-1.4 times as wide as high. Snout short, blunt, sloping gently toward top of head. Neck slightly swollen anteriorly. Body cylindrical. Limbs well developed, forelimbs 0.23-0.27 times SVL, hind limbs 0.36-0.40 times. Tail round in cross section, tapering toward tip, 1.6-1.8 times SVL.
Tongue lanceolate, covered with imbricate, scale-like papillae, with smooth, bifid tip. Anterior teeth conical, posterior teeth bicuspid.
Rostral approximately trapezoidal, more than twice as wide as high. Frontonasal single, irregularly pentagonal, laterally in contact with nasal and loreal. Prefrontals quadrilateral (the pair resembles a stylised butterfly, wider anteriorly), longer than wide or about as long as wide, with a short to moderately long medial suture. Each prefrontal in contact at the sides with loreal and first supraocular. Frontal hexagonal, longer than wide, slightly wider anteriorly; laterally in contact with first, second and third supraoculars (RMNH 25463 with a medial sulcus on anterior part of frontal). Frontoparietals irregularly pentagonal, obliquely elongate, with a short medial suture (about as long as, to shorter than that between prefrontals); laterally in contact with third supraocular, and in three of the four specimens also with fourth supraocular. A large interparietal, with lateral margins parallel or slightly divergent posteriorly. Parietals distinctly shorter and narrower than interparietal. Posterior margins of parietals and interparietal together roughly form a semicircle. Occipitals absent. Four supraoculars, third largest. Four or five supraciliaries, first widest. R M N H 25462 with three, R M N H 25463 with one, small scale(s) at each side between supraoculars and supraciliaries. Nasal semidivided,nostril in its anterior part, directed laterally. Loreal rectangular, separated from supralabials by a suture between frenocular and nasal. Frenocular relatively small, followed by a series of five or six suboculars, and four postoculars. Upper postocular borders on parietal and may be keeled; other postoculars smooth. Lower eyelid with semitransparent disc of 2-5 palpebrals. Six or seven supralabials, posterior one largest, reaching commissure of mouth; fifth below centre of eye. The scale that follows the sixth supralabial about as large as adjacent temporals. Temporal scales variably polygonal, juxtaposed to subimbricate, keeled, larger toward parietals. Ear-opening relatively large, vertically oval, surrounded by small scales, anteriorly forming a finely lobed margin, posteriorly smooth; tympanum almost superficial. All dorsal and lateral head scales, except for temporals, juxtaposed. Scales on dorsal surface of head with irregularly undulating longitudinal striations; on sides, temporals keeled, other scales smooth.
Mental approximately semicircular. Postmental undivided, pentagonal or heptagonal. Four pairs of chinshields, second largest, fourth smallest. First and second pair in contact medially and with infralabials, third pair separated medially and from infralabials by one scale. Scales of fourth pair closer to each other than to infra-labials, medially separated by two small scales, separated from infralabials by three or four larger scales. Four to six infralabials, suture between third and fourth, or fourth and fifth, below centre of eye; followed by one or two postinfralabials. Most head scales covered with small pits, either forming a peripheral row (posterior dorsal head scales) or scattered on the whole surface (others).
Gulars imbricate, anteriorly squarish and weakly keeled, posteriad becoming larger, longer than wide, strongly keeled, and mucronate; in 9-11 transverse rows. Collar rather indistinct, with 8-10 scales. Gular fold distinct toward sides. Gulars separated from scales on chin by a row of granules. Scales on nape imbricate, keeled, anteriorly variably polygonal to rhomboid, posteriad grading into dorsals. Scales on sides of neck conical to roughly trihedral, juxtaposed to subimbricate, larger posteriad; in approximately vertical rows.
Dorsals and scales o n flanks imbricate, keeled, mucronate, i n transverse and oblique rows; anteriorly hexagonal, posteriorly hexagonal near middorsal line, changing into rectangular (oblique in position) with diagonal keels in dorsolateral area, and into phylloid on flanks; 31-36 (33.4 ± 1.8, n= 5) transverse rows of dorsals between interparietal and posterior margin of hind limbs. Ventrals imbricate, shaped like a heraldic shield, low, broadly or sharply keeled, mucronate; in eight longitudinal, and 21-23 (22.0 ± 0.7, n= 5) transverse rows; keels longitudinally aligned. Scales around midbody 24-26 (25.2 ± 0.8, n= 5), ventrals and laterals resembling each other more the closer they are. Preanal plate with one anterior and five posterior scales. Males with two preanal pores, and four to six femoral pores at each side. Females with one preanal pore and one (RMNH 25463) or none (RMNH 25502) femoral pore per side. Pores in the centre of a swollen area formed by two to four scales of which anterior one largest.
Tail with imbricate, squarish, keeled, shortly mucronate scales, in transverse and longitudinal rows, keels aligned longitudinally. On underside scales are similar, except that they are narrower, roof-shaped, forming low longitudinal ridges.
Scales on limbs mostly rhomboid, keeled, imbricate; distinctly smaller, tuberculate, juxtaposed to subimbricate on ventral aspect of upper arms, and on posterior aspect of thighs. Subdigital lamellae medially divided; 8-10 (9.1 ± 1.2, n= 10, 5 specimens) under fourth finger, 11-14 (12.1 ± 1.1, n= 9,5 specimens) under fourth toe (Avila-Pires 1995).

Colour in life: MPEG 15858 (male), raw-umber (223) dorsally, with indistinct cinnamon (39) dorsolateral stripes; flanks black; ventral surface burnt-orange (116), with tail distally becoming black; iris very dark brown. According to M.S. Hoogmoed's field notes, R M N H 25462 (male) had also a red ventral surface. R M N H 25502 (female) with dorsal surface of head sepia (119), back and dorsal surface of tail sepia (219); dorso-lateral stripe (only visible anteriorly and posteriorly) cinnamon-drab (219C); chin light ferruginous (41), gular region and belly smoke-grey (45) with some cinnamon-rufous (40) tinge posteriorly; underside of tail light cinnamon-rufous, except for distal segment which was sepia (219) (Avila-Pires 1995).

Color in preservative, dorsal region brown. A light dorsolateral stripe from posterior corner of eye or from neck, fading out near midbody, and re-appearing at level of hind limbs. At least anteriorly the light stripe is bordered dorsally by a blackish line. Laterally it is in direct contact with a dark brown or blackish wide band which covers flanks completely. Some small light spots may be present on sides of neck and on anterior part of body. Ventral region cream in females, with an orange hue in males (which probably will disappear eventually); spotless except for the head ventrolaterally, where labials have transverse dark bands, and some dark spots may reach other scales on sides of chin. Limbs brown on upper side, cream ventrally. Tail brown dorsally, darker brown laterally (at least proximally); the pair of dorsolateral stripes which continues from body fades out relatively close to base of tail; a light ventrolateral stripe from posterior aspect of thigh to proximal part of tail may be present, or almost completely absent and represented only by a few spots on tail. Ventrally tail predominantly cream (with an orange hue in males), brown peppered (Avila-Pires 1995). 
CommentSimilar to L. parietale and older keys would yield that species (they differ mostly in scale characters and body proportions). 
EtymologyNamed after Maria Elizabeth Emilie Snethlage (1868-1929), director of the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi 1917-1921. 
  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • DIAGO-TORO, MARÍA F.; DANIELA GARCÍA-COBOS, GIOVANNI D. BRIGANTE-LUNA & JUAN D. VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO. 2021. Fantastic lizards and where to find them: cis-Andean microteiids (Squamata: Alopoglossidae & Gymnophthalmidae) from the Colombian Orinoquia and Amazonia. Zootaxa 5067(3): 377–400. - get paper here
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. & SILVANA AMARAL 2017. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae. Zootaxa 4269 (2): 151-196 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues M T. 1997. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Herpetologica 53 (3): 383-389. - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel T. and Teresa C. S. Avila-Pires 2005. New lizard of the genus Leposoma (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Lower Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 39 (4): 541-546 - get paper here
  • RODRIGUES, MIGUEL TREFAUT; MAURO TEIXEIRA JR., RENATO SOUSA RECODER, FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, ROBERTA DAMASCENO & KATIA CRISTINA MACHADO PELLEGRINO 2013. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with four fingers from the Atlantic Forest central corridor in Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3635 (4): 459–475 - get paper here
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