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Marisora pergravis (BARBOUR, 1921)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Providencia Island Skink, Providencia Skink 
SynonymMabuya pergravis BARBOUR 1921: 85
Mabuya pergravis — DUNN, 1936:536
Mabuya mabouya pergravis — DUNN & SAXE 1950:154
Mabuya mabouya pergravis — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970:200
Mabuya mabouya pergravis — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975:141
Mabuya mabouya pergravis — MACLEAN et al. 1977:40 (part)
Mabuya mabouya pergravis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1988:150
Mabuya mabouya pergravis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1991:457
Mabuya pergravis — MIRALLES 2006:1
Mabuya pergravis — MCNISH 2011
Alinea pergravis — HEDGES & CONN 2012
Mabuya pergravis — PINTO-SÁNCHEZ et al. 2015
Marisora pergravis — HEDGES et al. 2019
Marisora pergravis — MCCRANIE et al. 2020 
DistributionColombia (Isla de Providencia, Isla Santa Catalina)

Type locality: Isla de Providencia  
TypesHolotype: USNM 13875 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (pergravis). Alinea pergravis is characterized by (1) maximum SVL in males, 87.7 mm; (2) maximum SVL in females, 90.9 mm; (3) snout width, 2.65–3.07% SVL; (4) head length, 17.5–19.2% SVL; (5) head width, 10.8– 12.8% SVL; (6) ear length, 1.54–1.84% SVL; (7) toe-IV length, 11.4–13.2% SVL; (8) prefrontals, two; (9) supraoculars, four; (10) supraciliaries, four; (11) frontoparietals, two; (12) supralabial below the eye, five (20%), six (80%); (13) nuchal rows, one (80%), two (20%); (14) dorsals, 62–63; (15) ventrals, 70–73; (16) dorsals + ventrals, 132–136; (17) midbody scale rows, 28–30; (18) finger-IV lamellae, 15–16; (19) toe-IV lamellae, 17–20; (20) finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae, 32–36; (21) supranasal contact, Y; (22) prefrontal contact, N; (23) supraocular-1/ frontal contact, Y (80%), N (20%); (24) parietal contact, Y; (25) pale middorsal stripe, N; (26) dark dorsolateral stripe, N; (27) dark lateral stripe N; (28) pale lateral stripe, N; and (29) palms and soles, pale (Tables 3–5). Within the Genus Alinea, it is separated from all other species by having a higher number of dorsals (62–63 versus 54–61 in those other species) and combined dorsals and ventrals (dorsals + ventrals 132–136 versus 116– 130 in those other species). It also differs from A. berengerae and A. luciae in having more ventrals (70–73 versus 61–69 in those other species) and by having a larger auricular opening (ear length 1.54–1.84% SVL versus 1.43% SVL in A. berengerae and 0.983% SVL in A. luciae). From A. lanceolata it differs, additionally, by having a longer toe (toe-IV length 11.4–13.2% SVL versus 9.25–10.8% SVL in A. lanceolata). Alinea pergravis also differs from A. lanceolata and A. luciae in body shape (attenuate versus expanded at midbody) and ventral coloration (unpatterned versus ventral striping) [HEDGES & CONN 2012].

Marisora berengerae n. comb. and Marisora pergravis n. comb. differ from the two (remaining) species of Alinea, A. lanceolata and A. luciae, in having a more attenuate body shape (versus heavier-bodied in Alinea) and in lacking ventral striping (versus ventral striping present in Alinea) (McCranie et al. 2020). 
CommentAbundance: only known from the type locality (Meiri et al. 2017).

Distribution: see map in McCranie et al. 2020: 317 (Fig. 6). 
EtymologyNot given in original description (Barbour 1921). However, the species name is from the Latin per (very) and gravis (heavy), apparently in reference to the larger size of Alinea pergravis compared with a species (in the Genus Lygosoma) that Barbour considered it to be its close relative. It is not an exceptionally large species of mabuyine skink and is not closely related to Lygosoma [HEDGES & CONN 2012]. 
  • Barbour, Thomas 1921. Some reptiles from Old Providence Island. Proc. New England zool. Club 7: 81-85 - get paper here
  • Caicedo-PoRtilla, José Rances 2014. Rediscovery of Mabuya berengerae, Mabuya pergravis (Squamata: Scincidae) and Coniophanes andresensis (Squamata: Colubridae), and assesment of its threatened status in the San Andrés and Providencia Islands, Colombia [in Spanish]. Caldasia 36 (1): 181-201
  • Carvajal-Cogollo, J.E.; L.E. Rojas-Murcia. & G. Cárdenas-Arévalo 2020. Reptiles del Caribe colombiano/ Reptiles of the Colombian Caribbean. Tunja: Editorial UPTC, 268 pp. - get paper here
  • Dunn, E. R., and L. H. Saxe. 1950. Results of the Catherwood-Chaplin West Indies Expedition, 1948. Part. 5. Amphibians and reptiles of San Andrés and Providencia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 102:141-165 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244 - get paper here
  • MCCRANIE, JAMES R.; AMY J. MATTHEWS, S. BLAIR HEDGES 2020. A morphological and molecular revision of lizards of the genus Marisora Hedges & Conn (Squamata: Mabuyidae) from Central America and Mexico, with descriptions of four new species. Zootaxa 4763 (3): 301–353 - get paper here
  • McNish, T. 2011. La fauna del archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, Colombia, Sudamérica. Colomba Andina de Impresos, ISBN 978-958-99518-1-1
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Miralles, Aurélien 2006. A new species of Mabuya (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae) from the Caribbean Island of San Andrés, with a new interpretation of nuchal scales: a character of taxonomic importance. The Herpetological Journal 16 (1):1-7. - get paper here
  • Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa, Aurelien Miralles, Andrew J. Crawford, Martha Patricia Ramírez-Pinilla 2015. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Neotropical skink genus Mabuya Fitzinger (Squamata: Scincidae) with emphasis on Colombian populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.016 - get paper here
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