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Masticophis fuliginosus (COPE, 1895)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Baja California Coachwhip
G: Baja-Kutscherpeitschen-Natter
S: Chirrionera de Baja California 
SynonymZamenis lateralis fuliginosus COPE 1895: 679
Bascanion flagellum frenatum — VAN DENBURGH 1905: 26
Masticophis flagellum fuliginosus — WILSON 1970: 63
Masticophis flagellum fuliginosus — WILSON 1973
Masticophis flagellum fulginosus [sic] — STEBBINS 1985: 182
Masticophis flagellum fuliginosus — CROTHER 2000: 65
Masticophis fuliginosus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber fuliginosus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Masticophis fuliginosus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 418
Masticophis fuliginosus — O’CONNELL et al. 2017 
DistributionMexico (Baja California), USA (S California)

Type locality: Santa Margarita Island, Baja California del Sur, Mexico.  
TypesSyntypes: USNM 15135, USNM 15136, adult male and female, respectively, collected by the crew of the U. S. Fish Commission vessel Albatross, 2 May 1888 
CommentSynonymy: Masticophis f. fuliginosus has been elevated to full species according to GRISMER (1994). Previously it had been synonymized with M. f. piceus. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin adjective “fuliginosus” meaning brown or dark brown colouration. 
  • Collins, J.T. and T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Cope, E.D. 1895. On some North American Snakes. American Naturalist 29: 676-680 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (chair) 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. 6th edition. Herpetological Circular 37: 92 pp.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hollingsworth, Bradford D., Jorge H. Valdez-Villavicencio, Patricia Galina-Tessaro, Clark R. Mahrdt and Melissa A. Stepek. 2016. Masticophis fuliginosus (Cope, 1895). Diet. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (3): 746–748 - get paper here
  • Moreno-Higareda, Hiram Rafael; Fernanda Jaqueline Manrriquez-Gomez, Jorge Heriberto Valdez-Villavicencio, Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos 2020. INCIDENTAL AFFECTATION BY FISHING NET ON Masticophis fuliginosus IN A SALT MARSH OF BAJA CALIFORNIA. Rev. Latinoamer. Herp. 3 (1): 108-110 - get paper here
  • O'Connell, K. A., Streicher, J. W., Smith, E. N. and Fujita, M. K. 2017. Geographical features are the predominant driver of molecular diversification in widely distributed North American Whipsnakes. Mol Ecol., DOI: 10.1111/mec.14295 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Thomson, Robert C.; Amber N. Wright & H. Bradley Shaffer 2016. California Amphibian and Reptile Species of Special Concern. University of California Press - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1905. The reptiles and amphibians of the islands of the Pacific Coast of North America from the Farallons to Cape San Lucas and the Revilla Gigedos. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 3) 4 (1): 1-40 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, Larry D. 1973. Masticophis flagellum. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (145): 1-4 - get paper here
  • Wilson, Larry David 1970. The coachwhip snake, Masticophis flagellum (Shaw): Taxonomy and distribution. Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 16 (2): 31-99 - get paper here
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