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Mediodactylus aspratilis (ANDERSON, 1973)

IUCN Red List - Mediodactylus aspratilis - Data Deficient, DD

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Iranian Gecko, Iranian Keel-Scaled Gecko 
SynonymBunopus aspratilis ANDERSON 1973
Carinatogecko aspratilis — GOLUBEV & SZCZERBAK 1981
Carinatogecko aspratilis — RÖSLER 2000: 61
Mediodactylus aspratilis — ČERVENKA et al. 2010
Carinatogecko aspratilis — FATHINIA et al. 2011
Mediodactylus aspratilis — BAUER et al. 2013 
DistributionSW Iran (Fars-Province: Zagros Mountains, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad)

Type locality: Kohgiliye-va-Boyerahmad Province; “35 km E Gach Saran [30º20'N, 50º48'E], Fars Province, Iran” fide ANDERSON 1999. This locality is in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province, fide Gholamifard 2011.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 193961 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus Carinatogecko): All scales of the body, with exception of intermaxillaries, nasals, chin shields, and upper and lower labials, strongly keeled; three nasal scales contact nostril; digits weakly angularly bent, clawed, not dilated, not webbed, nor ornamented, with keeled transverse subdigital lamellae; dorsal pholidosis heterogeneous, small juxtaposed scales intermixed with tubercles; pupil vertical; tail segmented, caudal tubercles with bases in the middle of each segment, separated from posterior margin of segment by ring of scales (Fathinia et al. 2011); This diagnosis is based on Anderson 1999 and Szczerbak & Golubev (1986).

Four key morphological characters discriminate between the species Carinatogecko heteropholis and Carinatogecko aspratilis (Golubev & Szczerbak 1981; Szczerbak & Golubev 1986; Anderson 1999). The first character is the size of the scales in the middle of the back, which should be smaller than the abdominals in C. aspratilis and more or less equal to the abdominals in C. heteropholis. Unfortunately, there seems to be a typographic error in Anderson (1999), where the stated relative size of the scales is reversed relative to the publications of Szczerbak and Golubev (Golubev & Szczerbak 1981; Szczerbak & Golubev 1986). Abdominals of the specimens we examined are more or less equal in size to the scales on the back. The second key character is the shape of caudal tubercles, which should be pointed with enlarged posterior facet in C. aspratilis, but flattened in C. heteropholis. The third key character is the presence (in C. aspratilis) or absence (in C. heteropholis) of identical tubercles on forelimbs as on dorsum. The last key character (the number of subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe), does not contribute to unambiguous species identification. C. aspratilis is reported to have 17–18 lamellae and C. heteropholis 15 lamellae, but specimens studied by ČERVENKA et al. (2010) have 16–17. In the original description of C. aspratilis, 17–19 lamellae are mentioned (Anderson 1973). Hence, ČERVENKA et al. (2010) conclude that “C. aspratilis could be a junior synonym of C. heteropholis, but due to the low number of known specimens and hence poorly understood morphological variability, the final resolution requires further study.” 
CommentType species: Bunopus aspratilis ANDERSON 1973 is the type species of the genus Carinatogecko GOLUBEV & SZCZERBAK 1981. ČERVENKA et al. (2010) and Bauer et al. 2013 showed that Carinatogecko nests within Mediodactylus (Type species: Gymnodactylus kotschyi STEINDACHNER 1870) and thus synonymized Carinatogecko with Mediodactylus. Torki 2020 argued that Carinatogecko is valid, based on morphological grounds.

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin aspratilis with rough scales, from L. asper rough (Lewis, 1969). 
  • Anderson, S. C. 1973. A new species of Bunopus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from Iran and a key to lizards of the genus Bunopus. Herpetologica 29: 355-358. - get paper here
  • Anderson, Steven C 1999. The lizards of Iran. Contributions to Herpetology Volume 15, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Saint Louis, Missouri: i-vii, 1-442 [review in Copeia 2000 (4): 1144] - get paper here
  • BAUER, AARON M.; RAFAQAT MASROOR, JAMES TITUS-MCQUILLAN, MATTHEW P. HEINICKE,, JUAN D. DAZA & TODD R. JACKMAN 2013. A preliminary phylogeny of the Palearctic naked-toed geckos (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) with taxonomic implications. Zootaxa 3599 (4): 301–324 - get paper here
  • ČERVENKA, JAN; DANIEL FRYNTA & LUKÁŠ KRATOCHVÍL 2010. Phylogenetic relationships of the gecko genus Carinatogecko (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Zootaxa 2636: 59–64 - get paper here
  • Fathinia, Behzad; Rasoul Karamiani, Hamid Darvishnia, Naghi Heidari, and Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani. 2011. A new species of Carinatogecko (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Ilam Province, western Iran. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 5 (1): 61-74 - get paper here
  • Gholamifard, A 2011. Endemism in the reptile fauna of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 7 (1) - get paper here
  • Golubev, M. L., and N. N. Szczerbak 1981. Carinatogecko gen. n. (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) - a new genus from south-west Asia [in Russian]. Vestnik Zoologii, Kiev 1981 (5):34—41.
  • Kami, H. G. 1999. A new record of Carinatogecko aspratilis in Iran (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Zoology in the Middle East 17: 15 - get paper here
  • Nazari-Serenjeh, F. & Torki, F. 2008. Einige ökologische Aspekte von Carinatogecko aspratilis (ANDERSON 1973) (Gekkonidae: Reptilia). Sauria 30 (2): 23-28 - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Shcherbak, N. N. [= Szczerbak], and M. L. Golubev 1996. Gecko fauna of the USSR and contiguous regions. SSAR [Russian original published in 1986]. [book review in Salamandra 36 (2): 138]
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • ŠMÍD, JIŘÍ; JIŘÍ MORAVEC, PETR KODYM, LUKÁŠ KRATOCHVÍL, SEYYED SAEED HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI & DANIEL FRYNTA 2014. Annotated checklist and distribution of the lizards of Iran. Zootaxa 3855 (1): 001–097 - get paper here
  • Torki F. 2020. A new gecko genus from Zagros Mountains, Iran. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 14(1) [General Section]: 55–62 (e223) - get paper here
  • Torki, F. 2011. Description of a new species of Carinatogecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Iran. Salamandra 47 (2): 103-111 - get paper here
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