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Mesoclemmys zuliae (PRITCHARD, 1984)

IUCN Red List - Mesoclemmys zuliae - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaChelidae, Chelinae, Pleurodira, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Zulia Toadhead Turtle
G: Krötenkopfschildkröte 
SynonymPhrynops zuliae PRITCHARD & TREBBAU 1984
Phrynops (Batrachemys) zuliae — ALDERTON 1988
Batrachemys zuliae — MCCORD et al. 2001
Batrachemys zuliae — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002
Mesoclemmys zuliae — BOUR & ZAHER 2005
Batrachemys (Phrynops) zuliae — BONIN et al 2006
Mesoclemmys zuliae — VAN DIJK et al. 2011
Batrachemys zuliae — RIVAS et al. 2012
Phrynops (Batrachemys zuliae — PHILIPPEN 2012 
DistributionVenezuela (SW Maracaibo basin)

Type locality: "Cano Madre Vieja near El Guayabo, Distrito Colon, Edo. Zulia, Venezuela (8°53'N, 72°30'W)"  
TypesHolotype: UF 53439 
CommentFor a color illustration and distribution map see MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002.

Habitat: freshwater (rivers, swamps) 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Bour, R. & Zaher, H. 2005. A NEW SPECIES OF MESOCLEMMYS, FROM THE OPEN FORMATIONS OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL (CHELONII, CHELIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 45 (24): 295-311 - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Ettmar, Stephan 2019. Toad-headed turtles of the genus Mesoclemmys - Distribution, Natural History, Husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 204 pp.
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2002. Chelonian illustrations #1: South American Toadhead Turtles. Reptilia (GB) (21): 34-38 - get paper here
  • Philippen, H. - D. 2012. Phrynops. Die Gattung der Krötenkopfschildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (98): 42-48 - get paper here
  • Pritchard, P.C.H. 1987. Phrynops zuliae. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 404:1-2 - get paper here
  • Pritchard, P.C.H. & Trebbau, P. 1984. Phrynops (Batrachemys) zuliae new species. In: The Turtles of Venezuela, pp. 135-142
  • Pritchard, P.C.H., and P. Trebbau. 1984. The Turtles of Venezuela. SSAR Contributions to Herpetology 2: viii + 402 pp.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rojas-Runjaic, F.J.M. 2009. Mesoclemmys zuliae – Die geheimnisvolle Krötenkopfschildkröte aus dem Süden des Maracaibo-Sees. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (80): 34-39 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Dijk, Peter Paul van; John B. Iverson, H. Bradley Shaffer; Roger Bour & Anders G.J. Rhodin [turtle taxonomy working group] 2011. Turtles of the World, 2011 Update: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5: 78 pp.; doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v4.2011 - get paper here
  • Valverde, J. 2009. Südamerikanische Schildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (80): 16-27 - get paper here
  • Vargas-Ramírez, M., J. Michaels, et al. 2012. Weak genetic divergence between the two South American Toad-headed Turtles Mesoclemmys dahli and M. zuliae (Testudines:Pleurodira: Chelidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 33(3-4): 373-385 - get paper here
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