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Metlapilcoatlus olmec (PEREZ-HIGAREDA, SMITH, JULIA-ZERTUCHE, 1985)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Olmecan Pit Viper
S: Mano de Piedra 
SynonymPorthidium olmec PEREZ-HIGAREDA, SMITH, JULIA-ZERTUCHE 1985
Atropoides olmec — WERMAN 1992
Atropoides olmec — LINER 1994
Bothrops olmec
Porthidium olmec — WELCH 1994: 101
Atropoides olmec — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 241
Atropoides olmec — JADIN et al. 2009
Atropoides olmec — WALLACH et al. 2014: 85
Metlapilcoatlus olmec — CAMPBELL et al. 2019 
DistributionMexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, S Veracruz: Sierra de los Tuxtlas), Guatemala

Type locality: crest of Cerro Egega, 1100 m elevation, municipality of Catemaco.  
TypesHolotype: CAR-EBTT (= IBH-LT = UNAM-LT) 1300. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A member of the nummifer superspecles of Porthidium, dlfferlng from all other members In a lower number of ventrals (103-115 vs. 120-155); and from all except P. picadoi by a hlgher number of anterIor scale rows (27-28 vs. 21-25) [PEREZ-HIGAREDA et al. 1985]. 

A. olmec appears to be paraphyletic with respect to A. nummifer (CASTOE et al. 2003). The situation could be resolved by relegating olmect to subspecis status of A. nummifer or by raising some of the subspecies of nummifer to species status. However, CASTOE et al. 2003 refrained from suggesting any taxonomic rearrangements until additional data becomes available.

Habitat: terrestrial

Distribution: For a map of localities see Tepos-Ramírez et al. 2021: Fig. 1. 
Etymologynamed after the ancient Olmec tribe of southern Veracruz. 
  • Aguilar-López JL, Luría-Manzano R, Pineda E, Canseco-Márquez L 2021. Selva Zoque, Mexico: an important Mesoamerican tropical region for reptile species diversity and conservation. ZooKeys 1054: 127-153 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Campbell, Jonathan; Darrel R. Frost and Todd A. Castoe 2019. A NEW GENERIC NAME FOR JUMPING PITVIPERS (SERPENTES: VIPERIDAE). Rev. Latinoamer. Herp. 2 (2): 52-53 - get paper here
  • Guerra Centeno, Dennis; Héctor Fuentes Rousselin & David Morán Villatoro 2012. Serpientes de Guatemala: Guía para didentificación de especies. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, 186 pp.
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Jadin, Robert C.; Ronald L. Gutberlet Jr and Eric N. Smith 2010. Phylogeny, evolutionary morphology, and hemipenis descriptions of the Middle American jumping pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae: Atropoides). J Zool Syst Evol Res 48(4): 360–365; doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0469.2009.00559.x - get paper here
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Muñoz-Alonso, Luis Antonio; Jorge Nieblas-Camacho,<br />Marina Alba Chau-Cortez, Alondra Berenice González-Navarro, Jaime López-Pérez & Juan Pérez-López 2017. Diversidad de anfibios y reptiles en la Reservade la Biosfera Selva El Ocote: su vulnerabilidad ante la fragmentación y el cambio climático. In: Lorena Ruiz-Montoya et al. (eds), Vulnerabilidad social y biológica ante el cambio climático en la Re El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, pp.395-448 - get paper here
  • Perez-Higareda G; Smith H M; Julia-Zertuche J 1985. A new jumping viper, Porthidium olmec, from southern Veracruz, Mexico (Serpentes: Viperidae). Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 21 (3): 97-106 - get paper here
  • Tepos-Ramírez, Mauricio; Oscar Flores-Villela, Julián A. Velasco, Carlos Pedraza Lara, Oscar R. García Rubio & Robert C. Jadin 2021. Molecular Phylogenetics and Morphometrics Reveal a New Endemic Jumping Pitviper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Metlapilcoatlus) from the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Journal of Herpetology 55 (2): 181-191 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werman,S.D. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships of Central and South American pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (sensu lato): cladistic analyses of biochemical and anatomical characters. In: J.A. Campbell and E.D. Brodie (eds.): Biology of the Pitvipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas, pp. 21-40
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