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Micrablepharus maximiliani (REINHARDT & LÜTKEN, 1862)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Gymnophthalmini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPortuguese: Briba, Calango-do-Rabo-Azul, Calanguinho-de-Rabo-Azul, Lagarto-Cauda-Azul, Piolho-de-Cobra 
SynonymGymnophthalmus Maximiliani REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 211
Scincus cyanurus SCHINZ 1822 (nomen oblitum)
Micrablepharus glaucurus BOETTGER 1885: 218
Micrablepharus maximiliani — BOULENGER 1885: 426
Micrablepharus dunni LAURENT 1949: 3
Micrablepharus maximiliani — PETERS et al. 1970: 204
Micrablepharus maximiliani — AVILA-PIRES 1995: 416
Micrablepharus maximiliani — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Micrablepharus maximiliani — CASTOE et al. 2004
Micrablepharus maximilliani — UETANABARO et al. 2007 (in error)
Micrablapherus maximiliani — SANTOS et al. 2011 (in error)
Micrablepharus maximiliani — CACCIALI et al. 2016 
DistributionBrazil (from Maranhao “along the belt of open formations”: Bahia, Alagoas, Ceará, DF, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Pará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio de janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe, Tocantins), Paraguay, Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Peru [Catenazzi and Bustamante 2007]

Type locality: Maruim, Sergipe, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: ZMUC (M. Andersen, pers. comm., 11 Aug 2011) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Follows the generic diagnosis, and differs from its congener in having the inner finger completely missing (Avila-Pires 1995).

Description. Gymnophthalmid with maximum SVL, among material studied, of 39 mm in males (MPEG 16886), 40.5 mm in females (ZMUC-R4364). Head 0.18-0.23 times SVL, 1.4-1.6 times as long as wide, 1.2-1.3 times as wide as high. Snout short, wide, sloping gently posteriad. Neck about as wide as head and body. Body cylindrical. Limbs well developed, forelimbs 0.23-0.30 times SVL, hind limbs 0.36-0.43 times. Four fingers (inner one missing), five toes. Tail round in cross section, tapering toward tip, 1.6-1.7 times SVL.
Tongue lanceolate, covered with imbricate, scale-like papillae, with a smooth, bifid tip. Teeth small, conical.
Rostral hexagonal, more than twice as wide as high, visible from above. Fronto-nasal large, octagonal, i n contact with rostral, nasal, loreal, first supraocular (in ZMUC-R4364 the two scales are separated on one side by an extra, small scale), and frontal; it may also touch first supraciliary. Prefrontals absent. Frontal trapezoidal, distinctly longer than wide, anterior and posterior margins slightly convex; laterally in contact with first supraocular. Frontoparietals irregularly hexagonal, wider than long, with a relatively short medial suture; laterally in contact with first and second supraoculars. Interparietal usually rhomboid, posterior borders longest and forming a blunt tip; in RMNH 25690 there is a straight, relatively wide posterior margin. One parietal at each side of interparietal, slightly shorter, and distinctly wider than interparietal; posteriorly the two scales form a transverse, slightly convex line. Two supraoculars, first largest. Two supraciliaries, first longest and widening anteriorly. Nasal semidivided, approximately rectangular; nostril at its centre, directed laterally. Loreal quadrilateral, in contact with second, and in some specimens with third, supralabial; followed by a small frenocular. Subocular series formed by a small pre-ocular; a long subocular, which may be preceded by a short presubocular; and three postoculars, one of which may be posterior to the other two. Eyelids grown over the eye, immovable, transparent. Pupil round with a ventral and a dorsal flap projecting inwards. Seven or eight supralabials and postsupralabials; fourth or fifth supralabial longest and under the eye; the three scales that follow (one supralabial and two post-supralabials) higher and imbricate. Temporal scales smooth, imbricate, with rounded posterior margin. Ear-opening small, anterior margin broadly lobed, posterior margin finely lobed. Tympanum recessed into a short auditory meatus. Dorsal head scales smooth, most of them slightly imbricate.
Mental trapezoidal, convex anteriorly. Postmental undivided, heptagonal. Three pairs of chinshields (in RMNH 25690 one chinshield of first pair fused with postmental), all imbricate, in contact medially in a zigzag line, and in contact with infralabials. Four infralabials, fourth starting at level of centre of eye; followed by two or three postinfralabials, first almost as large as infralabials, other(s) small.
Gulars imbricate, smooth, with rounded posterior margin, in five longitudinal rows; 8-10 scales along a midventral line between chinshields and pectorals. Collar and gular fold indistinct. On nape, interparietal and parietals followed by one or two pairs of scales wider than long, first pair separated by a narrower, posteriorly rounded scale; in turn they are followed by scales in four longitudinal rows which grade into dorsals. Sides of neck with imbricate, smooth scales with rounded posterior margin, smaller than scales on nape.
Dorsals, laterals and ventrals similar, sub-hexagonal, smooth, imbricate, in 16 longitudinal rows around midbody; scales of one row in staggered position in relation to scales of adjacent rows; 31-34 scales along a middorsal line between interparietal and posterior margin of hind limbs; 21-24 along a midventral line between gulars and preanal plate. Preanal plate with one anterior and three to five posterior scales. ZMUC-R4365, a male, with five pores at each side (preanal and femoral pores indistinguishable from each other). Females either without pores (ZMUC-R3464, and probably also RMNH 25690 and MPEG 149, which are juveniles), or with up to four pores per side (MPEG 16886, with 4+4 pores, and MPEG 12891, with 3+3 pores; C M 65051, with 1+2 pores, is probably also a female, but it was not dissected for confirmation). Pores between three or four scales, of which anterior one largest and deeply indented.
Scales on proximal part of tail similar to those on body, distally keeled. On a regenerated tail scales pentagonal, narrow and elongate, keeled.
Scales on limbs mostly similar to those on body, but smaller; on dorso-posterior aspect of forearms, close to hands, some transversely elongate scales. The scales are smallest on posterior aspect of thighs. Subdigital lamellae single, medially keeled; 9-12 under longest finger (third finger, equivalent to fourth when five fingers are present), 12-16 under fourth toe (Avila-Pires 1995).

Color in life: In MPEG 16757-758, when alive, dorsal surface of head and back bronze, with sepia spots on posterior part of several scales. A cream dorsolateral stripe from rostral (where the two sides meet) to base of tail, bordered dorsally by a dark brown line, more distinct anteriorly. Flanks sepia. Ventral surface cream (except tail), under head with some sepia spots, and on belly, especially posteriorly, with paler, grey spots. Colour of tail near base similar to that of body, a short distance from base it becomes pastel blue. Iris black (Avila-Pires 1995).

Color in preservative: MPEG 12891 is greyish-blue dorsally, with a bluish-white dorso-lateral stripe from supraciliaries to at least proximal part of tail (although becoming darker on tail), bordered at both sides, over its entire length, by black; dorsally the black margin forms a stripe about as wide as the light stripe, ventrally it forms a black band covering the flanks; moreover, there is a white stripe from labials, through lower part of ear-opening, and above forelimbs, to base of hind limbs. Ventral region white and bluish under head and on belly, brownish under tail. Limbs brown with minute whitish dots; on anterior aspect of forelimbs, a poorly developed white stripe continues from the lateral white stripe on body. Regenerated part of tail uniformly brown. RMNH 25690 has a generally more opaque, brownish appearance than MPEG 12891; the dorsolateral light stripe is bordered dorsally by a dark brown stripe, which fades out on posterior part of body; the lateral light stripe is represented only up to the forelimbs, with the ventral border less distinct; ventral region mostly cream, under tail light brown (Avila-Pires 1995). 
CommentSynonymy: M. dunni and M. glaucurus have been synonymized with M. maximiliani by Rodriguez 1996.

Type Species: Gymnophthalmus Maximiliani REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862 is the type species of the genus Micrablepharus BOETTGER 1885 (fide RODRIGUES 1996). However, PETERS et al. (1970) state that Micrablepharus glaucurus BOETTGER 1885 is the type species. CASTOE et al. 2004 give the author of the genus as Micrablepharus DUNN 1932. 
EtymologyNamed after Maximilian Alexander Philip, Prince zu Wied-Neuwied (1782-1867), an aristocratic explorer. 
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