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Micrurus bocourti (JAN, 1872)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: False Triad Coral Snake, Ecuador Coral Snake
S: Coral de Triadas Falsas 
SynonymElaps bocourti JAN 1872, in JAN & SORDELLI 1872
Micrurus ecuadorianus SCHMIDT 1936: 196
Micrurus circinalis — SCHMIDT 1936: 192 (part.)
Micrurus catamayensis ROZE 1989 (fide VALENCIA et al. 2016)
Micrurus catamayensis — WELCH 1994: 79
Micrurus bocourti — WELCH 1994: 79
Micrurus bocourti — ROZE 1996
Micrurus bocourti — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 151
Micrurus bocourti — WALLACH et al. 2014: 442
Micrurus catamayensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 443
Micrurus bocourti — TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2019 
DistributionW Ecuador (Pacific lowlands), NW Peru

Type locality: Type locality restricted to Rio Daule, Guayas Province, Ecuador, by Roze, 1967.

ecuadorianus: Ecuador; Type locality: “Río Daule, western Ecuador”

catamayensis: S Ecuador (Catamayo Valley); Type locality: 2 km west of Loja, Catamayo Valley, Ecuador,4,780 ft. elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 0869, a male from an unknown locality, collected by Liataud in 1843
Holotype: BMNH 1935.11.3.103, male, collected by Carrion [catamayensis]
Holotype: MCZ 3559, Paratypes: ZSM 66/1914/1-2 [ecuadorianus] 
DiagnosisDefinition: A coral snake with accessory black bands forming triads and with the first triad consisting of only two bands. A black cap is present on the top of the head. The red bands have both small and large black tips or spots. Males are without supraanal tubercles (Roze 1996: 145).

Description: Males have 197 to 206 (201.6) and females have 212 to 220 (215.9) ventrals; subcaudals 43 to 50 (46.2) in males and 32 to 35 (34.1) in females; usually 1+I, occasionally 1+2, temporals. Examined: 21 males and 19 females, including all holotypes. The black cap is separated from the black nuchal band by an irregular white band. Occasionally, white spots are found on the parietal tips and the first dorsals. The last supralabials and temporals are white. Below, the mental and the first infralabials are partially or completely black. The rest of the head is white, but black tips may be present on some chin scales. In some specimens the chin is almost completely white. The nuchal black band is one of the original black bands, behind which an accessory band is formed so that the first triad consists of only 2 black bands. The other black triads consist of a central band, 3 to 5 dorsals long, and irregular outer bands 1 to 2 (sometimes 3) dorsals long. Ventrally, the bands of the triads are irregular, interrupted, or 1 ventrallong. The red bands have irregular black tips or large black spots that are concentrated around the periphery to produce the accessory black bands. The red bands are 5 to 13 dorsals and ventrals long. Ventrally they have both large and small black smudges or spots. The white bands within a triad are 1 or 2 dorsals and ventrals long with smalI, poorlydefined black tips. There are black and white bands on the tail. The white bands have a large, irregular spot in the middle. The males have 2/3 14 to 2/3 20 (15.8) and the females have 2/3 15 to 2/3 21 (17.9) black accessory triads on the body. On the tail, the males have 5 to 8 (6.8) and the females have 4 to 6 (5.1) black tail bands (Roze 1996: 145). 
CommentVenomous!

Distribution: not in Colombia (Campbell and Lamar 2004). 
EtymologyNamed after Marie Firmin Bocourt (1819-1904), French naturalist.
M. catamayensis was named after the type locality. 
References
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • FEITOSA, DARLAN TAVARES; NELSON JORGE DA SILVA JR., MATHEUS GODOY PIRES, HUSSAM ZAHER & ANA LÚCIA DA COSTA PRUDENTE 2015. A new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus (Serpentes, Elapidae) from western Amazon. Zootaxa 3974 (4): 538–554
  • Jan, G. 1870. Iconographie générale des ophidiens, Vol. 3, Livraisons 35-50. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris, (Milan ?), 188 pp. - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Roze J A 1989. New species and subspecies of coral snakes, genus Micrurus (Elapidae), with notes on type specimens of several species. American Museum Novitates (2932) : 1-15 - get paper here
  • Roze, J. A. 1996. Coral Snakes of the Americas. Krieger, Malabar, Florida
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1936. Preliminary account of coral snakes of South America. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 20 (19): 189-203 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Valencia, J. H., K. Garzón-Tello & M. E. Barragán-Paladines 2016. Serpientes venenosas del Ecuador: sistemática, taxonomía, historia natural, conservación, envenenamiento y aspectos antropológicos. Quito, Ecuador, Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés, Universidad de Texas, Fondo Ambiental Nacional, 652 pp. [review in HR 49 (1): 152, 2018]
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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