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Micrurus remotus ROZE, 1987

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Remote coral snake
Portuguese: Cobra-Coral, Coral-Verdadeira, Cobra-Coral-Remota, Cobra-Coral-Ornata 
SynonymMicrurus psyches remotus ROZE 1987
Micrurus remotus — ROZE 1994
Micrurus remotus — KORNACKER 1999: 159
Micrurus remotus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 453
Micrurus remotus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionS Venezuela, SE Colombia, Brazil (Roraima etc.)

Type locality: Base camp of Cerra de la Neblina, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela.

donosoi: Brazil (Para); TT: São Felix do Xingu, Pará, Brasil.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: USNM 266100, male 
DiagnosisDefinition: A single-banded coral snake with a black cap that fuses with the black nuchal band that is about 4 dorsals long. The black body bands range from 25 to 40. The red bands are black-tipped and with brownish overtones, and the males lack supraanal tubercles (Roze 1996: 213).

Description: Males have 202 to 203 (202.3) and females have 214 to 225 (219.3) ventrals; subcaudals 42 to 49 (46.3) in males and 32 to 37 (35.3) in females; 1+2 or 1+1 temporals. Examined: 3 males and 4 females, including the holotype.
The black cap is fused with the black nuchal band. The temporals and the last supralabials are yellowish with brownish or dark spots and dots. The chin may be covered by an irregular mottling of white and black, or the black may be more concentrated on the mental and the first infralabials. The black nuchal band is 4 dorsals and 3 ventrals long and projects onto the second pair of genials. The black bands are 2 to 3 dorsals and ventrals long and are somewhat irregular ventra11y. The red bands are distinct, with black-tipped scales and brownish overtones. Ventra11y they are immaculate red or have some irregular black mottling. The yellowish white bands are about half a dorsallong, forming interrupted and irregular crossbands bordering the black bands. Ventrally, the white bands are a full scale long. Only black and yellowish-white bands are found on the tail, but the latter usually have a small, reddishbrown dorsal spot.
The males have 25 to 29 (27.3) and the females have 29 to 40 (34.0) black body bands; 7 to 8 (8.7) black tail bands in males and 6 to 8 (7.0) in females (Roze 1996: 213). 
CommentVenomous! 
EtymologyRemotus, Latin for distant, alludes to the distribution of this snake in little-traveled regions where only Indians and occasional naturalists venture.
 
References
  • BERNARDE, Paulo Sérgio; Jáson de Oliveira GOMES 2012. Serpentes peçonhentas e ofidismo em Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, Estado do Acre, Brasil. Acta Amazonica 42 (1): 65 - 72 - get paper here
  • Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio;, Reginaldo Assêncio Machado & Luiz Carlos Batista Turci 2011. Herpetofauna da área do Igarapé Esperança na Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre – Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 11 (3): 117-144 - get paper here
  • FEITOSA, DARLAN TAVARES; NELSON JORGE DA SILVA JR., MATHEUS GODOY PIRES, HUSSAM ZAHER & ANA LÚCIA DA COSTA PRUDENTE 2015. A new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus (Serpentes, Elapidae) from western Amazon. Zootaxa 3974 (4): 538–554
  • Fraga R de, Stow AJ, Magnusson WE, Lima AP 2014. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia. PLoS One 9 (8): e105453. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105453 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira. 9(2): 121 – 214
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Moraes LJCL, Almeida AP, Fraga R, Rojas RR, Pirani RM, Silva AAA, de Carvalho VT, Gordo M, Werneck FP 2017. Integrative overview of the herpetofauna from Serra da Mocidade, a granitic mountain range in Northern Brazil . ZooKeys 715: 103-159 - get paper here
  • Morato de Carvalho, C. 2002. Descrição de uma nova espécie de Micrurus do Estado de Roraima, Brasil (Serpentes, Elapidae). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 42(8):183-192 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz0, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisnero 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roze J A 1987. Summary of coral snakes (Elapidae) from Cerro de la Neblina, Venezuela, with description of a new subspecies. Rev. Française Aquariol. 14 (3) 1987: 109-112 - get paper here
  • Roze, J.A. 1994. Notes on the taxonomy of venomous coral snakes (Elapidae) of South America. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30: 177-185. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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