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Naja nivea (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Cape Cobra
G: Kap-Kobra
woodi: Black Spitting Cobra 
SynonymColuber niveus LINNAEUS 1758: 223
Vipera (Echidna) flava MERREM 1820
Naja nivea BOIE 1827
Naja gutturalis SMITH 1838: 92
Naja intermixta DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1298
Naja haje var. capensis JAN 1863: 119
Naia flava BOULENGER 1887
Naja flava STERNFELD 1910
Naja nivea — FITZSIMONS & BRAIN 1958
Naja nivea — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Naja nivea — BRANCH 1981: 27
Naja nivea — AUERBACH 1987: 197
Naja nivea — WELCH 1994: 93
Naja (Uraeus) nivea — WALLACH et al. 2009
Uraeus niveus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 763
Naja nivea — BATES et al. 2014: 406
Naja nivea — SCHLEICHER 2020 
DistributionC/S Namibia, SW Botswana, W Republic of South Africa, Lesotho

Type locality: “Africa”  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NRM (NHRM) 91 
DiagnosisDescription (species): Branch 1981: 27 
CommentVenomous!

Variation: According to FITZSIMONS & BRAIN 1958 found in 3 color forms: uniform honey yellow, reddish-brown mottled, uniform yellow to reddish-brown.

Diet: Feeds mainly on small rodents, but will also take frogs and toads and small birds.

Synonymy partly after BROADLEY & WÜSTER 2004. 
References
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Barends, J. M., & Maritz, B. 2021. Specialized morphology, not relatively large head size, facilitates competition between a small‐bodied specialist and large‐bodied generalist competitors. Journal of Zoology - get paper here
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Bauer, A.M., and Branch, W.R. 2003. The herpetofauna of the Richtersveld National Park, Northern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. Herpetological Natural History 8: 111-160 [2001]
  • Berkheimer, R. 1996. Want to get lens-to-nose with venomous snakes? Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (Feb 1996): 66-71
  • BOURQUIN, O. & V. GRUENER 2017. A NOTE ON THE HERPETOFAUNA OF MODISA CAMP (BOTSWANA) AND ITS SURROUNDINGS. African Herp News (64): 9-26 - get paper here
  • Branch, W. R. 1981. The venomous snakes of southern Africa 2. Elapidae and Hydrophidae. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 17 (1): 1-47 - get paper here
  • Branch, W. R. 1998. Naja nivea Cape Cobra. Size. African Herp News (27): 17-18 - get paper here
  • Branch, W.R.; Haagner, G.V.; Hall, R. 1993. Life History Notes - Naja nivea. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (42): 40-40 - get paper here
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D. & Blaylock 2013. The Snakes of Zimbabwe and Botswana. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 387 pp. [book review in Sauria 35 (2): 59 and Copeia 2014: 388] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1968. A review of the African cobras of the genus Naja (Serpentes: Elapinae). Arnoldia (Rhodesia) (ser. 3) 29: 1-14
  • BROADLEY, D.G. & W. WÜSTER 2004. A review of the southern African ‘non-spitting’ cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja). African Journal of Herpetology 53 (2):101-122 - get paper here
  • Cimatti, E. 2007. Namibia - Introduction to a vast territory. Reptilia (GB) (50): 58-67 - get paper here
  • Conradie, Werner; Brian Reeves , Neil Brown, & Jan A. Venter 2016. Herpetofauna of the Oviston, Commando Drift and Tsolwana nature reserves in the arid interior of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Indago 32: 81-98 - get paper here
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa - Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, V.F.M.; Brain, C.K. 1958. A Short account of the Reptiles of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. Koedoe, 1(1): 99-104 - get paper here
  • GOLDBERG, S.R. 2009. Naja nivea (Linneaus, 1758) Reproduction. African Herp News (50): 28 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, S.R. & BURSEY, C.R. 2009. Naja nivea (Linneaus, 1758) Endoparasites. African Herp News (50): 29-30 - get paper here
  • Haagner, G.V.; Branch, W.R. 1996. Life History Notes - Naja nivea. African Herp News (25): 42-42 - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Hörold, Ralf 2019. Die echten Kobras und ihre Gifte Ophidia 13 (1): 18-26
  • Layloo, Inshaaf; Caitlin Smith & Bryan Maritz 2017. Diet and feeding in the Cape Cobra, Naja nivea. African Journal of Herpetology 66 (2): 147-153 - get paper here
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Phelps, Tony. 2007. Observations of the Cape cobra, Naja nivea (Serpentes: Elapidae) in the DeHoop Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Herpetological Bulletin 99: 29-35 - get paper here
  • Phelps, Tony. 2007. Naja nivea Maximum size. African Herp News (42): 22-23 - get paper here
  • Post, Yorick; Jens Puschhof, Joep Beumer, Harald M. Kerkkamp, Merijn A.G. de Bakker, Julien Slagboom, Buys de Barbanson, Nienke R. Wevers, Xandor M. Spijkers, Thomas Olivier, Taline D. Kazandjian, Stuart Ainsworth, Carmen Lopez Iglesias, Willine J. v 2020. Snake Venom Gland Organoids. Cell 180, 233–247 - get paper here
  • Reeves, B., Brooke, C. F., Venter, J. A., & Conradie, W. 2022. The Reptiles and Amphibians of the Mpofu-Fort Fordyce Nature Reserve Complex in the Winterberg Mountains, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. African Journal of Wildlife Research, 52(1) - get paper here
  • Schleicher, Alfred 2015. Reptilien Namibias. Namibia Scientific  Society, 276 pp.
  • Schleicher, Alfred 2020. Reptiles of Namibia. Kuiseb Publishers, Windhoek, Namibia, 271 pp.
  • Schmidt, Dieter 2015. Ophiophagie bei Schlangen im Terrarium. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (5): 72-73 - get paper here
  • Smith, A. 1838. Contributions to the Natural History of Southern Africa. Art. VIII. Mag. Nat. Hist., London, 2 (14): 92-94
  • Spawls, S., Branch, B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Blandford, London, 192 pp.
  • Trutnau, L. 1984. Erfahrungen bei der Pflege und Nachzucht von zwei afrikanischen Naja-Arten: der Schwarzweißen Hutschlange Naja melanoleuca HALLOWELL 1857 und der Kapkobra Naja nivea (LINNAEUS 1758). Herpetofauna 6 (31): 15-26 - get paper here
  • VISSER, J. 2012. Naja nivea Linaeus, 1758. African Herp News (56): 32-33 - get paper here
  • Wallach, V.; Wüster, W. & Broadley, D.G. 2009. In praise of subgenera: taxonomic status of cobras of the genus Naja Laurenti (Serpentes: Elapidae). Zootaxa 2236: 26–36 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Winchell, S. 2011. Kobras. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (89): 16-22 - get paper here
  • WITBERG, M. 2011. Naja nivea (Linnaeus, 1758) Juvenile colouration. African Herp News (53): 46-47 - get paper here
  • Witberg, Marcel. 2007. Naja nivea Juvenile markings. African Herp News (42): 21-22 - get paper here
 
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