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Oligodon purpurascens (SCHLEGEL, 1837)

IUCN Red List - Oligodon purpurascens - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Brown Kukri Snake
G: Purpur-Kukrinatter, Braune-Kukrinatter 
SynonymXenodon purpurascens SCHLEGEL 1837: 90
Xenodon purpurascens — SCHLEGEL 1839
Simotes tri-notatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 631
Simotes albocinctus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 633 (nec Coronella albocincta CANTOR 1839)
Calamaria brachyorrhos — MOTLEY & DILLWYN 1855: 49
Simotes purpurascens — BLEEKER 1857
Simotes purpurascens var. C — GÜNTHER 1858
Simotes trinotatus — GÜNTHER 1864
Simotes labuanensis GÜNTHER 1864
Simotes purpurascens var. albocinctus — JAN 1865
Simotes obscurus THEOBALD 1868:42 (fide DAS et al. 1998)
Simotes crassus THEOBALD 1868:42 (fide DAS et al. 1998)
Simotes catenifer STOLICZKA 1873: 121
Simotes dennysi BLANFORD 1881
Simotes affinis FISCHER 1886: 8
Simotes labuanensis — BOULENGER 1885: 389
Simotes labuanensis — BOETTGER 1887
Simotes purpurascens var. labuanensis — BOETTGER 1898
Simotes purpurascens — BOULENGER 1894
Dicraulax purpurascens — COPE 1895
Simotes purpurascens var. trinotata — BOETTGER 1898
Simotes purpurascens var. B — WERNER 1900
Holarchus purpurascens — BARBOUR 1912
Oligodon purpurascens — WALL 1923
Oligodon purpurascens purpurascens — HAAS 1950
Oligodon purpurascens — HAILE 1958
Oligodon purpurascens kangeanicus MERTENS 1959
Oligodon purpurascens — HENDRICKSON 1966: 67
Olygodon [sic] purpurascens — SCHULZ 1988
Oligodon purpurescens — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 371
Oligodon purpurascens — COX et al. 1998: 59
Oligodon purpuracens — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999 (in error)
Oligodon purpurascens — INGER & VORIS 2001
Oligodon purpurascens kangeanicus — ISKANDAR & MUMPUNI 2002
Oligodon purpurascens — TILLACK & GÜNTHER 2010
Oligodon purpurascens — WALLACH et al. 2014: 502 
DistributionIndonesia (Nias, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Kalimantan, Karimata Archipelago, Mentawai Archipelago, Riau Archipelago, We)
Malaysia (Malaya and East Malaysia), Pulau Pangkor, Pulau Tioman.

Type locality: Java  
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.4.20 (and possibly additional specimens). 
CommentSynonymy mostly after TILLACK & GÜNTHER 2010.

Distribution: not in China fide Tillack & Günther 2009 and Malkmus et al. 2002.

Subspecies: the status of kangeanicus is unclear (see also Tillack and Günther, 2009). This species occurs in two distinct phenotypes. One of the two phenotypes is characterized by a highly conspicuous red and banded coloration that suggests mimicry of an aposematic signal (Fig. 1 in DE ROOIJEN et al. 2011 and illustrations in Grismer et al., 2004; Van Rooijen and Van Rooijen, 2007; Tillack and Günther, 2009) whereas the second phenotype exhibits a cryptic brownish dull coloration (illustrations in De Rooijen et sl. 2011, Manthey and Grossmann, 1997; Chan-ard et al., 1999; Stuebing and Inger, 1999; Malkmus et al., 2002; Tillack and Günther, 2009). 
  • ARIFIN, UMILAELA; DJOKO T. ISKANDAR and ROSITA ELIANUR 2011. Herpetofauna Diversity Of Karimata Island-Indonesia. Proceedings of the Conference “Biology of the Amphibians in the Sunda Region, South-east Asia”. Organized by Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 28–30 September 2009. pp:1–7. Edited by Indraneil Das et al.. Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conse - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1885. A list of reptiles and batrachians from the Island of Nias. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 16: 388-389 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • David,P. & Vogel, G. 1996. The snakes of Sumatra. An annotated checklist and key with natural history notes. Bücher Kreth, Frankfurt/M.
  • Fischer, J.G. 1886. Ueber eine Kollektion Reptilien und Amphibien von der Insel Nias und über eine zweite Art der Gattung Anniella GRAY. Abh. Naturw. Ver. Hamburg 19 (1): 3-10
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Amphibians and reptiles of the Seribuat Archipelago. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 239 pp.
  • Haile, N.S. 1958. The snakes of Borneo, with a key to the species. Sarawak Mus., Kuching, J. 8: 743-771.
  • Hendrickson,J.R. 1966. Observations on the fauna of Pulau Tioman and Pulau Tulai. 5. The Reptiles. Bull. Nat. Mus. Singapore 34: 53-71
  • Inger, R.F. & Voris, H. K. 2001. The biogeographical relations of the frogs and snakes of Sundaland. Journal of Biogeography 28: 863-89 1
  • Iskandar, Djoko T. and Mumpuni 2002. The herpetological type specimens in the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense Collection. Hamadryad 27 (1):123-135 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 12. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de 2017. The Snakes of Java, Bali and Surrounding Islands. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 435 pp. - get paper here
  • Lidth DE JEUDE, T.W. VAN 1922. Snakes from Sumatra. Zoologische Mededelingen 6: 239-253. - get paper here
  • Lim, K.K.P. & Ng, H.H. 1999. The terrestrial herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool., Suppl. No. 6: 131-155 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • MEGANTARA, E. N., JAUHAN, J., SHANIDA, S. S., HUSODO, T., FAUZI, D. A., HENDRAWAN, R., WULANDARI, I. & YUANSAH, Y. 2022. Herpetofauna distribution in different land cover types of West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 23(6) - get paper here
  • Milto, Konstantin D.; Yury A. Lukin 2020. A Revised Herpetofauna of Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 27 (6): 353-368 - get paper here
  • Onn, Chan Kin; J. van Rooijen, L. Lee Grismer, Daicus Belabut,, Mohd. Abdul Muin Md. Akil, Hamidi Jamaludin, Rick Gregory, and Norhayati Ahmad 2010. FIRST REPORT ON THE HERPETOFAUNA OF PULAU PANGKOR, PERAK, MALAYSIA. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (2): 139 – 146 - get paper here
  • ONN, CHAN KIN; L. LEE. GRISMER, DIONYSIUS S. SHARMA, DAICUS BELABUT, and NORHAYATI AHMA 2009. New herpetofaunal records for Perlis State Park and adjacent areas. Malayan Nature Journal 61 (4): 255 - 262
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Rooijen, J. van & Myriam van Rooijen. 2007. The land snakes of the Santubong Peninsula, Sarawak, Borneo: A preliminary list of species with natural history notes. Russ. J. Herpetol. 14 (1):27-38 - get paper here
  • Rooijen, J. van & van Rooijen, M. 2002. Einige Ergänzungen, Berichtigungen und neue Beobachtungen zur Herpetofauna von Pulau Tioman, West-Malaysia. Sauria 24 (3): 3-12 [erratum in 24 (4): 34] - get paper here
  • Rooijen, Johan van 2016. Captive Breeding and Conservation Captive Breeding of the Colubrid Snake Oligodon purpurascens (Schlegel, 1837) (Reptilia: Squamata). Russ. J. Herpetol. 23 (4): 307-310 - get paper here
  • Rooijen, Johan van; Perry L. Wood Jr.,,, Jesse L. Grismer,, L. Lee Grismer, and Wolfgang Grossmann 2011. Color Pattern Dimorphism in the Colubrid Snake Oligodon purpurascens (Schlegel, 1837) (Reptilia: Squamata). Russ. J. Herpetol. 18 (3): 215 – 220 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Schulz, Klaus-Dieter 1987. Erfahrungen mit Kukri-Nattern der Gattung Oligodon (BOIE 1827). Herpetofauna 9 (52): 32-34 - get paper here
  • Sclater,W.L. 1891. Notes on a collection of snakes in the Indian Museum, with descriptions of several new species. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal LX: 230-250 - get paper here
  • Stoliczka,F. 1873. Notes on some species of Malayan Amphibia and reptilia. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 42: 111-126 - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B. & INGER, R.F. 1999. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo. Natural history Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, 254 pp. [corrections in HR 31: 124]. - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B., Inger, R.F. & Lardner, B. 2014. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo, second edition. Natural history Publications (Borneo)
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Tillack, Frank and Rainer Günther 2010. Revision of the Species of Oligodon from Sumatra and Adjacent Islands, with Comments on the Taxonomic Status of Oligodon subcarinatus (Günther, 1872) and Oligodon annulifer (Boulenger, 1893) from Borneo (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (4): 265-294 [2009] - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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