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Ophiomorus tridactylus (BLYTH, 1853)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Three-toed Snake Skink, Indian Sand Swimmer 
SynonymSphenocephalus tridactylus BLYTH 1853: 654
Sphenoscincus tridactylus — PETERS 1875
Ophiomorus tridactylus — BOULENGER 1887 (part.)
Ophiomorus tridactylus — SMITH 1935: 346
Ophiomorus tridactylus — LEVITON 1959: 450
Ophiomorus tridactylus — DAS 1996: 47
Ophiomorus tridactylus — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Ophiomorus tridactylus — NASRABADI et al. 2017 
DistributionW Pakistan, S Afghanistan (LEVITON 1959: 461), E Iran

Type locality: Afghanistan  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesSyntypes: ZSI 2526-2529, 2531-2532 (fide Das et al, 1998) 
Diagnosis 
CommentSMITH 1935 cited BLYTH as BLYTH 1855 (not 1853).

There has been some confusion about the distribution of this species in India, as various authors have included in the fauna of India but others haven’t. Reports from India have confused O. raithmai with this species (A. Bauer, pers. comm., 30 Aug 2011). Not in India (Gujarat) fide Patel & Vyas 2019.

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. 
References
  • Alcock, A. W. & FINN,F. 1897. An account of the Reptilia collected by Dr. F.P. Maynard, Captain A.H. McMahon, C.I.E., and the members of the Afghan-Baluch Boundary Comission of 1896. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 65: 550-566 [1896] - get paper here
  • Anderson, S.C. & Leviton,A.E. 1966. A review of the genus Ophiomorus (Sauria: Scincidae), with descriptions of three new forms. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 33 (16): 499-534 - get paper here
  • Anderson, Steven C 1999. The lizards of Iran. Contributions to Herpetology Volume 15, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Saint Louis, Missouri: i-vii, 1-442 [review in Copeia 2000 (4): 1144] - get paper here
  • Baig, KJ, Masroor, R., and Arshad, M. 2008. Biodiversity and ecology of the herpetofauna of Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Russ. J. Herpetol. 15 (3): 193-205 - get paper here
  • Blyth,E. 1854. Notices and descriptions of various reptiles, new or little-known. Part I. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 22 [1853]: 639-655 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1887. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, Anelytropsidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. London: 575 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Clark, R. J., Clark, E. D., Anderson, S. C. and Leviton, A. E. 1969. Report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from Afghanistan. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (ser. 4) 36: 279-316. - get paper here
  • Damadi, Ehsan; Rasoul Karamiani; Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani; Ali Gholamifard 2017. A checklist of lizards from southeastern part of the Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics, DOI: 10.22067/ijab.v13i1.50398 - get paper here
  • Greer, Allen E. and George D. F. Wilson 2001. Comments on the scincid lizard genus Ophiomorus, with a cladistic analysis of the species. Hamadryad 26 (2): 261-271 [2002]
  • Hassan, Habib Ul; Qadeer Mohammad Ali, Naveed Ahmad, Mohammad Attaullah, Anser Mahmood Chatta, Umer Farooq and Amjad Ali 2020. STUDY OF VERTEBRATE DIVERSITY AND ASSOCIATED THREATS IN SELECTED HABITATS OF SINDH AND BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN. INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH. 17 (1): - get paper here
  • KAZEMI, SEYED MAHDI; MASOOD FARHADI QOMI, HAJI GHOLI KAMI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2011. A new species of Ophiomorus (Squamata: Scincidae) from Maranjab Desert, Isfahan Province, Iran, with a revised key to the genus. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 5 (1): 23-33. - get paper here
  • Khan, M.S. 2003. CHECKLIST AND KEY TO THE LIZARDS OF PAKISTAN. Pakistan J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. (1): 1-25 - get paper here
  • Leviton, A.E. 1959. Systematics and Zoogeography of Philippine Snakes. Unpublished PhD Thesis.
  • Leviton, Alan E. 1959. Report on a collection of reptiles from Afghanistan. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 29 (12): 445-463 - get paper here
  • Murthy, T. S. N. 1994. An updated handlist of the reptiles of India. Cobra 17: 17-37.
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 1985. Classification and distribution of the reptiles of India. The Snake 17 (1): 48-71.
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 1990. A field book of the lizards of India. Records Zool. Survey India 115: 1-122 - get paper here
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • NASRABADI, REZA; NASRULLAH RASTEGAR-POUYANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI, AHMAD GHARZI 2017. A revised key to the lizards of Iran (Reptilia: Squamata: Lacertilia). Zootaxa 4227 (3): 431–443 - get paper here
  • Patankar, P.; Singh, A.P.; Desai, I. & Suresh, B. 2014. SPECIES RICHNESS OF SAURIA IN GUJARAT WITH A TAXONOMIC KEY TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF THEIR FAMILIES AND SPECIES. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences 7: 27-36 - get paper here
  • Patel, Harshil; and Raju Vyas 2019. Reptiles of Gujarat, India: Updated Checklist, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Herpetology Notes 12: 765-777 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1875. Über zwei Gattung von Eidechsen, Scincodipus und Sphenoscincus. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1875 (August): 551-553 - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • ŠMÍD, JIŘÍ; JIŘÍ MORAVEC, PETR KODYM, LUKÁŠ KRATOCHVÍL, SEYYED SAEED HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI & DANIEL FRYNTA 2014. Annotated checklist and distribution of the lizards of Iran. Zootaxa 3855 (1): 001–097 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Stoliczka, F. 1872. Notes on the Reptilian and Amphibian Fauna of Kachh. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 1872: 71-85 - get paper here
 
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