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Oxyrhabdium modestum (DUMÉRIL, 1853)

IUCN Red List - Oxyrhabdium modestum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaCyclocoridae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Philippine Shrub Snake 
SynonymSténognathe modestus DUMÉRIL 1853: 72
Stenognathus modestus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 504
Stenognathus modestus — GÜNTHER 1873: 169
Geophis schadenbergi FISCHER 1885: 93
Geophis modestus — BOETTGER 1896: 77 (part.)
Oxyrhabdium modestum — BOULENGER 1893: 302
Oxyrhabdium modestum — LEVITON 1964: 410
Oxyrhabdium modestum — HALLERMANN 2007
Oxyrhabdium modestum — WALLACH et al. 2014: 517 
DistributionPhilippines (Basilan, Bohol, Dinagat, Leyte, Mindanao, Negros, Samar, Camiguin Sur)

Type locality: see comment (in error)  
TypesSyntype: MNHN-RA 7301 and MNHN-RA 7301A, BMNH 1946.1.13.98 
CommentSynonymy: GÜNTHER 1873 and LEVITON 1964 list Rhabdosoma leporinum as a synonym of Stenognathus modestus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON.

Phylogenetics: The genus Oxyrhabdium has not been unambiguously assigned to any particular snake family although Zaher et al. 2019 showed that it (as represented by DNA sequences from O. leporinum) is more closely related to Psammophiidae and Prosymnidae than to any other family.

Distribution: the original type locality, “Java” is in error.

Type species: Sténognathus modestus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854 is the type species of the genus Oxyrhabdium BOULENGER 1893. 
  • Beukema, W. 2011. Herpetofauna of disturbed forest fragments on the lower Mt. Kitanglad Rnage, Mindanao Isand, Philippines. Salamandra 47 (2): 90-98 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., G. BIBRON & A.H.A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 7 (partie 1). Paris, xvi + 780 S. - get paper here
  • Duméril, ANDRÉ MARIE CONSTANT 1853. Prodrome de la classifcation des reptiles ophidiens. Mém. Acad. Sci., Paris, 23: 399-536 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1885. Ichthyologische und herpetologische Bemerkungen. V. Herpetologische Bemerkungen. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 2: 82-121 - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1873. Notes on some reptiles and batrachians obtained by Dr. Bernhard Meyer in Celebes and the Philippine Islands. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1873: 165-172 - get paper here
  • Hallermann, J. 2007. Zur Geschichte der herpetologischen Sammlung des Zoologischen Museums Hamburgs, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung von Dr. Johann Gustav Fischer (1819 - 1889). Sekretär 7 (1): 20-32 - get paper here
  • Leviton, A.E. 1957. A review of the Philippine snakes of the genus Oxyrhabdium (Serpentes, Colubridae). Wasmann Journal of Biology 15 (2): 285–303 - get paper here
  • Leviton, A.E. 1964. Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes. VI. The snakes of the genus Oxyrhabdion. Philippine J. Sci. 93: 407-422 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Cameron D. Siler, Jeffrey L. Weinell, and Rafe M. Brown 2018. Synopsis of the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 64 (14): 399-568 - get paper here
  • Sanguila MB, Cobb KA, Siler CD, Diesmos AC, Alcala AC, Brown RM 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands. ZooKeys 624: 1–132, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.624.9814 - get paper here
  • Smith, Brian E. 1993. Notes on a collection of squamate reptiles from eastern Mindanao, Philippine Islands part 2: Serpentes. Asiatic Herpetological Research 5: 96-102 - get paper here
  • Supsup, Christian E.; Faith M. Guinto, Bernard R. Redoblado, Rai S. Gomez 2017. Amphibians and reptiles from the Mt. Hamiguitan Range of eastern Mindanao Island, Philippines: new distribution records. Check List 13 (3): 2121 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1922. The snakes of the Philippine Islands. Manila (Bureau of Printing or Science), Monograph 16: 312 pp. - get paper here
  • VENTURINA, Russell Evan L.;Ynigo Luis C. DEL PRADO,Rhim Ayyah C. KAMIR, Marlon N. BALMORES and Arvin C. DIESMOS 2020. A Revised Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Camiguin Sur, Misamis Oriental, Mindaanao, Philippines. Asian Herpetological Research 11 (1): 28-43 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinell, J. L., & Brown, R. M. 2017. Discovery of an old, archipelago-wide, endemic radiation of Philippine snakes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 119: 144–150 [2018] - get paper here
  • Weinell, Jeffrey L.; Errol Hooper, Alan E. Leviton, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Illustrated Key to the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 66 (1): 1-49 - get paper here
  • Zaher H, Murphy RW, Arredondo JC, Graboski R, Machado-Filho PR, Mahlow K, et al. 2019. Large-scale molecular phylogeny, morphology, divergence-time estimation, and the fossil record of advanced caenophidian snakes (Squamata: Serpentes). PLoS ONE 14(5): e0216148 - get paper here
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