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Paralaudakia caucasia (EICHWALD, 1831)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Caucasian Agama
G: Kaukasus-Agame
Russian: Кавказская агама 
SynonymLacerta muricata PALLAS (non Lacerta muricata SHAW, 1801)
Stellio caucasicus EICHWALD 1831: 187 (nom. subst.)
Stellio caucasius EICHWALD 1831
Stellio caucasicus — DE FILIPPI 1867: 145
Stellio persicus ANDERSON 1872: 382 (non Agama persicus BLANFORD 1881; fide SMITH 1935)
Agama caucasica — BOULENGER 1885
Agama reticulata NIKOLSKY 1911: 272
Agama reticulata NIKOLSKY 1912: 272 (fide TERENTJEV & TCHERNOW 1949)
Agama caucasica — SMITH 1935: 220
Agama caucasica — LEVITON 1959: 461
Agama caucasica — THIEME 1980
Agama caucasia — ORLOWA 1981
Stellio caucasius – ANANJEVA et al. 1988: 5106
Stellio caucasius — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Laudakia caucasicus — BAIG & BÖHME 1995
Laudakia caucasicus — DAS 1996: 44
Laudakia caucasia — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 77
Laudakia caucasica — SZCZERBAK 2003
Laudakia caucasia — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Stellio caucasia – HALL 2009
Paralaudakia caucasia — BAIG et al. 2012
Agama caucasica — MOHAMMED et al. 2017
Laudakia caucasia — ANANJEVA et al. 2020
Laudakia caucasia — SPEYBROECK et al. 2020 
DistributionS Russia (Caucasus, Dagestan), E/S Republic of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, SW Turkmenistan, Tajikistan (ANANJEVA & ORLOV 1979), E Turkey (E Anatolia, Armenia) [TERENTJEV & CHERNOV 1949], Iraq ?, N Iran, Afghanistan, NW Pakistan (incl. Waziristan, N Baluchistan [KHAN 2002]), NW India ?

Distribution fide BAIG et al. 2012: Transcaucasia, Turkey, N Iran, N Afghanistan, Turkmenia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan.

Type locality: Tiflis (= Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia) and Baku (Azerbaijan)

reticulata: Tajikistan; Type locality: “Tschubek, Buchara orient.” [Chubek, Khatlon province, Tajikistan]  
TypesSyntypes: EMKSU (fide Doronin et al, 2017 but cited as unlocated by ANDERSON 1999)
Holotype: ZISP 10718. Leg: N. A. Zarudny, 24.VI.1910 [Agama reticulata Nikolsky 1911: 272] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Paralaudakia). Tail arranged in distinct whorles of usually three, only sometimes two or four scale annulis. Gular scales smooth. Vertebral scales larger than other dorsal scales, body scales heterogeneous, irregular and keeled. Tail length about two times of the snout-vent length or longer [BAIG et al. 2012].

Diagnosis (Paralaudakia caucasia). Medium to large size; head and body depressed; olivaceous above with black rimmed yellow ocelli; vertebral enlarged scales keeled; flanks with enlarged mucronate scales; tail segment of two; callous glands present [BAIG et al. 2012]. 
CommentType species: Stellio caucasius Eichwald, 1831 is the type species of the genus Paralaudakia BAIG et al. 2012. The subdivision of Laudakia in several genera remains controversial (see, e.g. Melville et al. 2009, Speybroeck et al. 2020).

Nomenclature: Laudakia caucasia (not caucasica) is the proper name (W. Böhme, Salamandra 34 (1): 96).

Synonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.). Agama caucasica mucronata is now considered as a valid species. Lacerta muricata SHAW, 1801 = Amphibolurus muricatus).

Subspecies: Stellio caucasica triannulatus has been transferred to Laudakia microlepis.

Similar species: Has been confused with L. microlepis.

Distribution: BAIG et al. 2012 state that S Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan are occupied by P. microlepis but not caucasia. P. caucasia and P. microlepis may be sympatric in some parts of Turkmenia and northeastern Afghanistan. See map in YOUSEFKHANI HOSSEINIAN et al. 2013. See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. 
EtymologyNamed after its distribution in the Caucasus region.

Etymology (Paralaudakia). The chosen name refers to Laudakia (as allusion of the formerly used name of the genus) and para [greek for ‘next to’] (to show the relation between the two genera). 
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