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Pelturagonia anolophium »

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
DistributionIndonesia (Borneo: Kalimantan)

Type locality: Gunung Lumut, Paser, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia, 832 m elevation, 1.410788S, 115.977718E.  
TypesHolotype: MZB 14992, adult female, Field tag 21838) collected by Thorton R. Larson and M. Munir. ND4 GenBank accession number MN548383; 16S GenBank accession number MN537800.
Paratypes (3): Two subadult females (UTA 65255, 65256) and one subadult male (MZB 14993), collected by T.R. Larson and M. Munir from 19:10 to 19:34 h at the type locality, 1,090 m elevation, 1.402748S, 115.985918E. ND4 GenBank accession number MN548384 for UTA 65255 and MN548385 for UTA 65256; 16S GenBank accession number MN537801 for UTA 65255 and MN537802 for UTA 65256. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A large species of Pelturagonia reaching at least 193 mm (80 mm SVL) in length, distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) supracilium lacking long spinose scale; (2) tubercular sublabials 4–7 anterior to enlarged subrictal tubercle; (3) enlarged middorsal scales widely spaced, not forming continuous dorsal crest; (4) nuchal crest consisting of 10– 12 triangular scales mostly in continuous series; (5) paravertebrals on neck and scales of pectoral gap pointing backward; (6) base of tail with dorsolateral crest of 7–10 enlarged scales; (7) area between caudal dorsolateral crests not flat, with enlarged projecting scales; (8) four rows of enlarged subcaudals near base of tail (poorly differentiated in females); (9) gulars sharply keeled and mucronate, 31–36; (10) scales around midbody 92–109; (11) dorsum green with contrasting pale, saffron tubercles and reddish brown to brick red bands (at least in females and juvenile males; adult male unknown); (12) gular region without black pigment or with black reticulation but lacking sharp black lines extending postero-medially from labials.

Comparisons. Pelturagonia anolophium is most likely to be confused with Pe. borneensis and Pe. cephalum (characters in parentheses). Unlike these species, Pe. anolophium attains a larger size (80 mm SVL in females compared to 62–74 mm in the other two species) and has enlarged projecting, tubercular scales dorsal to the caudal crests (area between crests flat with small keeled scales), 10– 12 nuchal crest scales (4–8), nuchal crest mostly not interrupted by much smaller scales (2–5 small scales interrupting crests of Pe. borneensis and 3–13 small scales interrupting crests of Pe. cephalum), 2–3 enlarged posttemporal modified scales (single in all specimens except one Pe. cephalum, FMNH 152165), and the postorbital process of the frontal reaching the postciliary ornament (process and ornament separated by a large gap). All three species have strongly heterogeneous dorsal scales, but Pe. anolophium has scales that are distinctly more spinose. Additionally, unlike Pe. borneensis, Pe. anolophium has a continuous row of small lorilabials between the infraorbitals and supralabials (usually one or more large infraorbitals usually contacting supralabials) and lateral flaring of the crista prootica behind the crista alaris (crista prootica straight behind crista alaris); Pe. anolophium lacks oblique lines across the throat (prominent black to charcoal lines extend posteriorly and medially). Unlike Pe. cephalum, Pe. anolophium has spinose gulars (bluntly keeled), 4–7 tubercular sublabial scales anterior the subrictal tubercle (0 tubercular sublabials anterior to the subrictal tubercle), and four rows of enlarged subcaudals (two). 
EtymologyThe new name anolophium is a neuter noun used in apposition to Pelturagonia and derived from the Greek prefix ano- meaning above and noun lophos meaning crest. The new name refers to the diagnostic projecting, enlarged scales positioned above the dorsolateral caudal crests in Pelturagonia anolophium. 
  • Harvey, Michael B., Larson, Thorton R., Jacobs, Justin L., Shaney, Kyle, Streicher, Jeffrey W., Hamidy, Amir, Kurniawan, Nia & Smit, Eric N. 2019. Phoxophrys After 60 Years: Review of Morphology, Phylogeny, Status of Pelturagonia, and a New Species from Southeastern Kalimantan. Herpetological Monographs 33 (1): 71-107 - get paper here
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