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Petracola ventrimaculatus (BOULENGER, 1900)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Spotted Lightbulb Lizard 
SynonymProctoporus ventrimaculatus BOULENGER 1900: 185
Proctoporus ventrimaculatus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 240
Proctoporus ventrimaculatus — DOAN & SCHARGEL 2003
Petracola ventrimaculatus — DOAN & CASTOE 2005
Proctoporus ventrimaculatus — SCHLÜTER 2006
Petracola ventrimaculata — ECHEVARRÍA & VENEGAS 2015 
DistributionN Peru (interandean valleys)

Type locality: Cajamarca, Peru, elevation 3300 m.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.2.34 (formerly 1900.3.30.17), sex undetermined (SVL 34 mm; tail 26 mm), collected by P. O. Simons. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus Petracola): Petracola differs from members of Alopoglossinae by having its tongue covered in imbricate, scale-like papillae instead of oblique plicae (Harris, 1994), from Gymnophthalminae by having moveable eyelids, from Rhachisaurinae by having external ear openings, and from Ecpelopinae by lacking prefrontal scales. Within Cercosaurinae (sensu Castoe et al., 2004), Petracola differs from all genera except Pholidobolus, Proctoporus, and Riama by lacking prefrontal scales. Petracola differs from Proctoporus by having smooth dorsal scales, from Pholidobolus by having juxtaposed dorsal scales and from Riama by a combination of smooth dorsal scales and femoral pores per hind limb in both sexes less than six (exclusive of pre-anal pores).

Definition of Petracola: Tongue with imbricate, scale-like papillae. Head scales smooth without striations or rugosities: single frontonasal, frontal, and interparietal; paired frontoparietals and parietals; prefrontals absent; nostril pierced in a single nasal; nasals not in contact; supraoculars three or four. Eyelids developed, lower with a translucent disc, usually divided into multiple palpebral scales. Posterior gulars squarish. Limbs pentadactyl; digits clawed. Dorsal scales quadrangular, elongate, smooth, juxtaposed, forming transverse series only. Ventrals large, smooth, quadrangular, juxtaposed, forming regular longitudinal and transverse series. Femoral pores usually present in males and females, less than six per hind limb; preanal pores present or absent. Tail cylindrical. 
CommentThe monotypic P. ventrimaculatus Boulenger group was defined by a divided palpebral disc, two supraoculars with a greatly expanded first superciliary, and dark ventral scales (Uzzell, 1970).

DOAN & CASTOE (2005) errected a new genus for P. ventrimaculatus as the species was distinct from all other proctoporus (despite the new genus was not necessary in order to maintain monophyly):

Type species: Proctoporus ventrimaculatus BOULENGER 1900: 185 is the type species of the genus Petracola BOULENGER 1900. 
EtymologyThe epithet, an adjective, is probably a conflation of the Latin words venter and macula terminated by the adjectival suffix -atus referring to the black markings on the venter. 
  • Boulenger, George A. 1900. Descriptions of new batrachians and Reptiles collected by Mr. P. O. Simons in Peru. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6 (32): 181-186 - get paper here
  • Doan, T. M. & Castoe, T.A. 2005. Phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cercosaurini (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with new genera for species of Neusticurus and Proctoporus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 143: 405–416. - get paper here
  • Doan, T.M. & Schargel, W.E. 2003. Bridging the gap in Proctoporus distribution: a new species (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes of Venezuela. Herpetologica 59 (1): 68-75 - get paper here
  • Echevarria, Lourdes Y. and Pablo J. Venegas. 2013. Petracola ventrimaculatus (spotted lightbulb lizard) cannibalism. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 678-679 - get paper here
  • Echevarría LY, Venegas PJ. 2015. A new elusive species of Petracola (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Utcubamba basin in the Andes of northern Peru. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 9(1): 26–33 (e107) - get paper here
  • Kirschner, A. 1999. Das Portrait: Proctoporus ventrimaculatus Boulenger. Sauria 21 (4): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Kizirian, David; Bayefsky-Anand, Sarah; Eriksson, April; Le, Minh; Donnelly, Maureen A. 2008. A new Petracola and re-description of P. ventrimaculatus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Zootaxa 1700:53-62 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. and E. Lehr 2004. Comments on Euspondylus and Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Peru, with the description of three new species and a key to the Peruvian species. Herpetologica 60 (4):501-518 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez LO, Mamani L. 2020. A new species of Petracola (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Río Abiseo National Park, San Martín, Peru. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 14(1): 140–146 (e227)
  • Schlüter, U. 2006. Neues von Leuchttejus. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (58): 7 - get paper here
  • Uzzell, T. M. 1970. Teiid lizards of the genus Proctoporus from Bolivia and Peru. Postilla 142: 1-39. - get paper here
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