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Phrynosoma platyrhinos GIRARD, 1852

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma platyrhinos - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Desert Horned Lizard
G: Wüsten-Krötenechse
calidiarum: Southern Desert Horned Lizard
platyrhinos: Northern Desert Horned Lizard
goodei: Sonoran Horned Lizard
S: Camaleón del Desierto 
SynonymPhrynosoma platyrhinos GIRARD in BAIRD & GIRARD 1852: 69
Doliosaurus platyrhinos GIRARD 1858: 443
Phrynosoma platyrhinos — GENTRY 1885: 147
Phrynosoma platyrhinus — BOULENGER 1885: 247
Phrynosoma platyrhinos — STEJNEGER 1893: 190
Anota calidiarum COPE 1896: 833
Anota platyrhina — COPE 1896: 333
Anota calidiarum — COPE 1900
Anota platyrhina — COPE 1900: 443
Phrynosoma platyrhinos — BURT 1933
Phrynosoma platyrhinos — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 101
Phrynosoma platyrhinos calidiarum — REEVE 1952: 856
Phrynosoma platyrhinos platyrhinos — ETHERIDGE 1964
Phrynosoma platyrhinos — STEBBINS 1985: 140
Phrynosoma platyrhinos calidiarum — PIANKA 1991
Phrynosoma platyrhinos — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma platyrhinos calidiarum — BRUEKERS & PEEK 2004
Phrynosoma (D.) platyrhinos calidiarum — CROTHER et al. 2012
Phrynosoma (Doliosaurus) platyrhinos — CROTHER et al. 2012
Phrynosoma platyrhinos platyrhinos — KÖHLER 2021 
DistributionUSA (E Oregon, S Idaho, Nevada, E Utah, SW California, W Arizona), Mexico (Baja California Norte)

Type locality: Great Salt Lake, Utah.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: USNM 189 ? (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950)
Holotype: USNM 18444, female [calidiarum] 
DiagnosisDefinition. A medium to large horned lizard (adults 72-95 mm SVL) characterized by a single row of relatively small lateral abdominal fringed e sdong the side of the body. Other characteristics include: relatively short occipital horns; the longest temporal spine nearly as long as the occipital horns; small throat scales sometimes with a single row of slightly larger scales on each side of throat; enlarged chin shields; nostril inside a line connecting the supraorbital ridge with the tip of the snout; snout very blunt. The belly is usually spotted. The dorsal color is variable, and can be buff, yellowish, reddish, or grayish. Two prominent dark patches are present immediately behind the neck,grading into a series of several more down the back and on to the tail (Pianka 1991).

Diagnosis. P. platyrhinos can be distinguished from all congeners by the following: two moderately elongated occipital horns at the back of the head usually not in contact at their base; posterior head margin between occipital horns not indented; nostril openings inside the canthus rostralis; eardrum either exposed or covered with scales; gular scales small, granular, uniform in size or with a single marginal row of slightly enlarged scales on each side of the throat; side of body between limbs with a single row of elongate, pointed fringe scales; smooth ventral scales; tail broadening gradually rather than abruptly at base (Pianka 1991).

Diagnosis (calidiarum). Occipital horns are heavy and long (45% or more of head length); interoccipiw space one-half the basal diameter of occipital spine; 5 or 6 temporal horns, each longer than the one anterior; tail often somewhat flattened posteriorly (Pianka 1991). 
CommentSynonymy partly after SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

Subspecies: The subspecies of P. platyrhinos are questioned by Pianka (1991). MULCAHY et al. 2006 elevated Phrynosoma platyrhinos goodei to full species status based on mtDNA sequences. MULCAHY et al. 2006 also presented evidence for goodei x mcalli hybrids. KÖHLER 2021 synonymized Phrynosoma platyrhinos calidiarum with the nominate subspecies, and moved goodei (back) to platyrhinos.

Group: Belongs to the Doliosaurus clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006.

Distribution: see map in Mulcahy et al. 2006: 1809 (Fig. 3). Not in Sonora fide Lemos-Espinal et al. 2019. 
EtymologyThe name platyrhinos is a combination from the Greek "platy” (broad, or flat) and "rhino” (nose). 
References
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  • Banta, B.H. 1961. Herbivorous Feeding of Phrynosoma platyrhinos in Southern Nevada Herpetologica 17 (2): 136-137. - get paper here
  • Baur, B. 1973. Pflege und Zucht der Wüstenkrötenechse Phrynosoma platyrhinos. Salamandra 9 (3-4): 145-159 - get paper here
  • Baur, B.E. 1986. Longevity of horned lizards of the genus Phrynosoma. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 22 (3): 149-151 - get paper here
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  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Bruekers, Jaco and Peek, Ron 2004. Veldwaarnemingen aan de zuidelijke woestijn-Padhagedis, Phrynosoma platyrhinos calidiarum (COPE 1896) in Nevada en Zuid-Californië. Lacerta 62 (3): 106-112 [erratum in 62 (4): 174] - get paper here
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  • Newbold, T. A. Scott and James A. MacMahon 2014. Determinants of Habitat Selection by Desert Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma platyrhinos): The Importance of Abiotic Factors Associated with Vegetation Structure. Journal of Herpetology Sep 2014, Vol. 48, No. 3: 306-316. - get paper here
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