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Phymaturus timi HIBBARD, NENDA & LOBO, 2019

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymPhymaturus timi HIBBARD, NENDA & LOBO 2019
Phymaturus sp. 7. — MORANDO et al. 2013
Phymaturus sp. 7. — LOBO et al. 2015 
DistributionArgentina (Neuquén)

Type locality: Área Natural Protegida Auca Mahuida, accessing from Provincial Road No 6, 37°42′06.3′′S; 68°51′29.5′′W, 1,569 m asl, Pehuenches department, Neuquén province, Argentina.  
TypesHolotype: MCN-UNSA 4751. Adult male; Paratypes: MCN-UNSA 4750, MCN-UNSA 4752, MCN-UNSA 4753. Same data as holotype. MACN 48025, MACN 48027, MACN 48029, MACN 48032, MACN 48033, MACN 48036. All nine males. On the roadside in Área Natural Protegida Auca Mahuida, between La Aguada 1,801 m asl (37°44′56.48′′S; 68°53′46.55′′W) and Risco Alto 1,937 m asl (37°45′38.23′′S; 68°55′52.32′′W), Añelo department, Neuquén province, Argentina. One female: MCN-UNSa. Same data as holotype. Eight juveniles: MCN-UNSa 4755, MCN-UNSa 4756. Same data as holotype. MACN 48026, MACN 48028, MACN 48030, MACN 48031, MACN 48034, MACN 48035. On the roadside in Área Natural Protegida Auca Mahuida, between La Aguada 1,801 m asl (37°44′56.48′′S; 68°53′46.55′′W) and Risco Alto 1,937 m asl (37°45′38.23′′S; 68°55′52.32′′W), Añelo department, Neuquén province, Argentina. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis : Phymaturus timi sp. nov. belongs to the palluma group because it exhibits apomorphies found for this group of species (Lobo et al., 2012a): superciliary scales short and juxtaposed, loss of contact between lorilabial row and subocular scale, row of precloacal pores tending to be divided, spotted chest, and tail showing longitudinal thin grooves.
Within the palluma group, Phymaturus timi sp. nov. differs from all the members of the mallimaccii subclade [P. aguanegra Lobo et al., 2013; P. aguedae; P. alicahuense; P. antofagastensis Pereyra, 1985; P. bibronii (Guichenot, 1848); P. darwini; P. denotatus Lobo et al., 2012c; P. extrilidus Lobo et al., 2012b; P. laurenti Lobo et al., 2010; P. mallimaccii Cei, 1980; P. punae Cei et al., 1983 and P. williamsi Lobo et al., 2013] lacking the homogeneous, thin, brownspotted pattern (“spray pattern”) present in that group. The throat pattern of P. timi sp. nov. is variegated, not black as in P. vociferator Pincheira-Donoso, 2004, P. damasense Troncoso-Palacios and Lobo, 2012, and P. maulense. A scapular spot is visible in most individuals of P. timi sp. nov., but absent in P. dorsimaculatus Lobo and Quinteros, 2005, P. roigorum, and P. verdugo Cei and Videla, 2003. Females lack a patch of enlarged scales in the center of gular fold, as in females of P. damasense. Female yellow coloration is present in P. timi sp. nov. but absent in P. querque Lobo et al., 2010, P. verdugo, and P. roigorum. The observed P. timi sp. nov. female possesses an ocellated pattern, which differentiates it from females of P. maulense, P. damasense, P. dorsimaculatus, P. verdugo, and P. palluma, but unlike P. tromen, the margins of each longitudinal row never become fused. Dorsal head melanism is absent in P. timi sp. nov. but conspicuous in P. verdugo and P. palluma. In P. timi sp. nov. the dorsum of males is pale yellow or pale blue/white, unlike P. verdugo, P. dorsimaculatus, and P. palluma, in which the dorsum of males is always intense yellow to orange. The pale blue color has only been observed previously in P. tromen. Phymaturus timi sp. nov. differs from P. roigorum, P. querque, P. tromen, P. verdugo, and P. palluma in that it presents a thicker reticulated pattern than those species. Phymaturus timi sp. nov. presents two conspicuous white longitudinal mid-dorsal lines (Fig. 3), one extending from the back of the head to the shoulder line, and the other one from the posterior-most part of dorsum to the tail, absent in all the other species of the P. palluma group. Phymaturus timi sp. nov. is similar to P. querque in that both present a large number of scaleorgans in the tail, at least one per transversal row, but differs from P. roigorum and P. tromen, in that many times the transversal rows have no scale-organs at all in those species, and there is always one transversal row of scales with no scale-organs. Phymaturus timi sp. nov. differs in lepidosis, according to statistical analyses with P. roigorum. These were: more scales around mid-body, more dorsal scales in head-length, more ventral scales, more temporal scales counted from the mouth to the interparietal scale. Phymaturus timi sp. nov. also differs from P. roigorum in morphometrical variables (P < 0.01): snout–vent length (SVL) and head length being larger in P. timi sp. nov. Statistically significant differences were also found with respect to P. tromen: P. timi sp. nov. has fewer scales from the base of the head to the snout (Hellmich index), fewer temporal and gular scales, fewer temporal scales counted from mouth commissure to the interparietal scale, and fewer scales between preocular and loreolabial row. 
CommentSimilar species: P.l timi is very similar to P. roigorum. Phymaturus timi sp. nov. presents 0.7% distance from P. roigorum, 0.6% from P. verdugo, 0.3% from Phymaturus sp. Uspallata, and 2.2% from P. tromen for cytochrome b (cyt-b). 
EtymologyNamed in honor of Thomas Hibbard Sr., nicknamed Tim, for his invaluable contribution to the field of mathematics in Argentina. 
  • Hibbard, Thomas N.; Santiago J. Nenda, Fernando Lobo 2019. A New Species of Phymaturus (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from the Auca Mahuida Natural Protected Area, Neuquén, Argentina, Based on Morphological and DNA Evidence. South American J. Herp. 14 (2): 123-135 - get paper here
  • Lobo, F., Barrasso, D. A., Hibbard, T. and Basso, N. G. 2015. On the evolution and diversification of an Andean clade of reptiles: combining morphology and DNA sequences of the palluma group (Liolaemidae: Phymaturus). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 176:648–673, doi: 10.1111/zoj.12335 [2016]
  • Morando, Mariana; Luciano J. Avila, Cristian H.F. Perez, Monty A. Hawkins, Jack W. Sites 2013. A molecular phylogeny of the lizard genus Phymaturus (Squamata, Liolaemini): Implications for species diversity and historical biogeography of southern South America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (3): 694-714 - get paper here
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