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Podocnemis unifilis TROSCHEL, 1848

IUCN Red List - Podocnemis unifilis - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaPodocnemididae, Pelomedusoidea, Pleurodira, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Yellow-spotted Amazon River Turtle
Portuguese: Tracajá, Zé-Prego 
SynonymEmys cayennensis SCHWEIGGER 1812: 298 (nomen suppressum ?)
Podocnemis unifilis TROSCHEL in SCHOMBURGK 1848: 647
Testudo Terekay HUMBOLDT 1819: 243 (nomen oblitum fide VOGT et al. 2013)
Chelys (Hydraspis) Lata BELL in GRAY 1830: 17 (nom. obli. fide VOGT et al. 2013)
Emys Terekay — SCHINZ 1833 (fide PRITCHARD & TREBBAU 1984)
Podocnemis tracaya — COUTINHO 1868:149
Podocnemis unifilis — SIEBENROCK 1902
Podocnemis unifilis — FRAIR et al. 1978
Podocnemis unifilis — KAHL et al. 1980: 117
Podocnemis cayennensis — DAVID 1994
Podocnemis unifilis — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Podocnemis cayennensis — BONIN et al 2006
Podocnemis cayennensis — BOUR 2006
Podocnemis unifilis — TTWG 2017
Podocnemis unifilis — TTWG 2021 
DistributionCaribbean drainages of Guyana, French Guiana, Venezuela, and Colombia, Trinidad ?, Tobago ?, upper tributaries of the Amazon River in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, N Bolivia, S Venezuela, and Brazil (Amazonas, Pará)

USA (introduced to Florida)

Type locality: "Rupununi und Takutu" rivers, Guyana.

cayennensis: Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, N Bolivia (after BONIN et al. 2006).  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesHolotype: lost, formerly ZMB 142 (lost fide KING & BURKE 1989).
Lectotype: MNHN-RA 8359, designated by Bour 2006 [cayennensis] 
CommentNomenclature: Vogt et al. (2013) proposed in ICZN Case 3587 to conserve the name Podocnemis unifilis TROSCHEL 1848. Mittermeier and Wilson (1974) and Wermuth and Mertens (1977:121) believed that Emys cayennensis Schweigger 1812 may be an older name applicable to this species. Acting on Fretey's (1977) information about the type specimens of Emys dumeriliana and E. cayennensis, Hoogmoed and Gruber (1983:346) concluded that dumeriliana was an older available name for unifilis, and that cayennensis was a junior synonym of P. expansa. Pritchard and Trebbau's (1984) review showed the holotype of E. cayennensis, MHNH 8359, is a P. unifilis and that action by the ICZN may be necessary to suppress the variously applied cayennensis in favor of the more stable unifilis (after KING & BURKE 1989). TTWG 2017 declared Emys cayennensis a “provisional nomen suppressum”).

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers and tributaries)

Distribution: possibly introduced to Jeju Island (Korea) 
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