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Prosymna lineata (PETERS, 1871)

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Higher TaxaProsymnidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Lined Shovel-snout, Mozambique Shovel-snout 
SynonymTemnorhynchus lineatus PETERS 1871: 568
Prosymna lineata — LOVERIDGE 1958
Prosymna lineata — BROADLEY 1959
Prosymna lineata — BROADLEY 1962
Prosymna lineata — BOYCOTT 1992
Prosymna sundevalli lineata — BOYCOTT 1992
Prosymna sundevalli lineata — AUERBACH 1987: 176
Prosymna lineata — BROADLEY 1999
Prosymna lineata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 580 
DistributionZimbabwe, Republic of South Africa (Transvaal), Mozambique, Botswana

Type locality: “Matlale (S. Ostafrika)” [N Transvaal] [PETERS 1871]  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 7257 (Temnorhynchus lineatus PETERS 1871) 
DiagnosisDescription. Rostral with sharp horizontal edge separated by a pair of internasals (that are broadly in contact) from the single bandlike prefrontal ; frontal large ; loreal as long as high; preocular 1; postoculars 2 ; temporals 1 + 2, 2 + 2 or 2 + ; upper labials 5-6, the third and fourth entering the orbit ; lower labials 8, the first in contact with the single pair of sublinguals. Midbody scales smooth, in 15 rows; ventrals 155-169 (females 155-169); anal entire; subcaudals 18-20 (females 18-20).

Color. Above, head brown with black markings on the prefrontal; body dark violet brown, some scales edged with black and others flecked with white and coalescing to form a ladderlike pattern on the dorsum. Below, yellowish white, uniform. Juvenile female from Plumtree. Above, pale gray ; internasals with a black crossbar ; prefrontal with a spectacle-like crossbar as its extremities encircle the orbits; frontal with a black spot posteriorly; a black, T-shaped, nuchal marking; dorsum and tail with a series of irregular, light-edged, dark blotches that do not coalesce with the ill-defined line that flanks them. Below, white, uniform [from LOVERDIGDE 1958]. 
CommentSynonymy: Temnorhynchus is pre-occupied by a beetle genus. 
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1887. Synopsis of the snakes of South Africa. The Zoologist, London, (3) 11: 171-182
  • Boycott, R.C. 1992. An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Swaziland. The Conservation Trust of Swaziland - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. & Blaylock 2013. The Snakes of Zimbabwe and Botswana. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 387 pp. [book review in Sauria 35 (2): 59 and Copeia 2014: 388] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1962. On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
  • Broadley, D.G. 1965. A revision of the Prosymna sundevalli group (Serpentes: Colubridae). Arnoldia 2 (5): 1-6
  • Broadley, Donald G. 1999. Geographic distribution: Prosymna lineata (Peters, 1871); Lined Shovel-snout. African Herp News (30): 36-37 - get paper here
  • Haagner, G. V. 1997. Geographic distribution. Prosymna sundevallii lineata. African Herp News (26): 35 - get paper here
  • Lönnberg, E. 1910. Two new snakes from Lower Congo. Arkiv för Zoologi 7 (8): 1-8 - get paper here
  • Peters, W. 1871. Uber neue Reptilien aus Ostafrika und Sarawak (Borneo), vorzüglich aus der Sammlung des Hrn. Marquis J. Doria zu Genua. Mber. k. preuss. Akad. Wiss., Berlin [1871]: 566-581 - get paper here
  • Smith, A. 1849. Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa. 3 (Reptiles). Smith, Elder, and Co., London [facsimile published by Winchester Press, Johannesburg, 1977] - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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