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Python bivittatus KUHL, 1820

IUCN Red List - Python bivittatus - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaPythonidae, Henophidia, Pythonoidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesPython bivittatus progschai JACOBS, AULYIA & BÖHME 2009
Python bivittatus bivittatus KUHL 1820 
Common NamesE: Burmese Python
G: Dunkler Tigerpython
Chinese: 蟒 
SynonymPython bivittatus KUHL 1820: 94
Python molurus bivittatus — MERTENS 1921
Python molurus bivittatus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 429
Python molurus bivittatus — COX et al. 1998: 15
Python molurus bivittatus — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 214
Python molurus bivittatus — ZHAO 2006
Python bivittatus — JACOBS et al. 2009
Python molurus bivattatus — LALREMSANGA et al. 2011 (in error)
Python bivittatus bivittatus — COX et al. 2012: 54
Python bivittatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 618
Python bivittatus hainannus ZHANG 2015
Python bivittatus hainannus — MURPHY & CRUTCHFIELD 2019

Python bivittatus progschai JACOBS, AULYIA & BÖHME 2009
Python bivittatus progschai – KOCH 2011
Python bivittatus progschai — KOCH 2012 
DistributionSE Nepal, India (Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh [A. Captain, pers. Comm.], Uttar Pradesh), S Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam (Hoa Binh), S China (S Yunnan east to Fujian, incl. Hainan and Hong Kong; Sichuan, Guangxi, Guangdong), Indonesia (Java, Bali, Sulawesi).

Introduced to Florida (USA)

progschai: Sulawesi; Type locality: SW Sulawesi. Diagnosis: see Jacobs et al. 2009.

Type locality: Java (designated by MERTENS 1930)  
ReproductionGROOT et al. (2003) and KUHN & SCHMIDT (2003) presented evidence that this species may be parthenogenetic. 
TypesHolotype: iconotype: Plate in SEBA 1735 and KUHL 1820.
Holotype: ZFMK 87481 [progschai] 
DiagnosisDescription: Top of body is dark brown or yellowish grey, with a series of 30--40 large, Irregular squarish, black-edged, dark chocolate-grey patches on top and sides of body; has dark and dark grey dorsal and lateral spots; has a sub-ocular stripe; belly is grey with dark spots on outer scale rows. Body is thick and cylindrical; head is lance-shaped, and distinct from neck; sensory pits are present in rostrals and on some supralabials and infralabials; spurs are small; tail is short and prehensile; cloacal spurs are present (Das 2012: 15). 
CommentSubspecies: This species has been considered as a subspecies of P. molurus. See P. molurus and references therein for more information. The status of Python bivittatus hainannus remains unclear, as there is insufficient information provided in the original description, but it is likely a synonym of P. bivittatus (Song Huang, pers. comm., 4 Feb 2021).

Hybridization: "The evidence for the recognition of P. bivittatus to date is based on the presence or absence of a subocular scale, yet the two forms interbreed readily in captivity. In at least one case, the interbreeding of P. bivittatus with P. sebae results in no subocular at all, even though both of the progenitors possess one." [from G. Rodda, pers. comm. 22 Feb 2010].

Distribution: Records from Sumatra and Borneo are believed to be incorrectly identified (Haile 1958, Groombridge and Luxmoore 1991). See map in Barker & Barker 2008.

DNA barcodes suggested multiple species within this species (Laopichienpong et al. 2016).

Genome: Python (molurus) bivittatus was one of the first reptiles to have its genome sequenced (Castoe et al. 2013). 
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