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Rhineura floridana (BAIRD, 1858)

IUCN Red List - Rhineura floridana - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaRhineuridae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata
Common NamesE: Florida Worm Lizard 
SynonymLepidosternon floridanum BAIRD 1858: 255
Lepidosternon floridanum— GARMAN 1883
Rhineura floridana— GARMAN 1883
Rhineura floridana — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 142
Rhineura floridana — CROTHER 2000
Rhineura floridana — GANS 2005: 41 
DistributionUSA (Florida, Georgia [HR 27: 153])

Type locality: ‘‘Micanopy, Florida’’.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 3203. 
CommentSometimes this species is put in a separate family, Rhineuridae.

Type Species: Lepidosternon floridanum is the type species of the genus Rhineura. 
  • Baird, S.F. 1859. Description of new genera and species of North American lizards in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 10: 253-256 [1858] - get paper here
  • Bogert, Charles M. (Charles Mitchill); Cowles, Raymond B. (Raymond Bridgman) 1947. Moisture loss in relation to habitat selection in some Floridian reptiles. American Museum novitates (1358) - get paper here
  • Carr, A. 1949. Notes on eggs and young of the lizard Rhineura floridana Copeia 1949 (1): 77. - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Gans, C. 2005. CHECKLIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE AMPHISBAENIA OF THE WORLD. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 289: 1-130 - get paper here
  • Gans, C., G.C. Huang & H.F. Clark 1967. The Diphyletism of the Amphisbaenia (Reptilia): A Re-Evaluation Based upon Chromosome Counts Copeia 1967 (2): 485-487. - get paper here
  • Gans, Carl 1967. Rhineura. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (42): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Gans, Carl 1967. Rhineura floridana. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (43): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1883. On certain reptiles from Brazil and Florida. Sci. Observer, Boston, 4 (5 - 6): 47-48
  • Hipsley, Christy A. and Johannes Müller 2014. Relict Endemism of Extant Rhineuridae (Amphisbaenia): Testing for Phylogenetic Niche Conservatism in the Fossil Record. Anatomical Record 297 (3): 473–481 - get paper here
  • Jensen, John B.; Carlos D. Camp, Whit Gibbons, & Matt J. Elliott 2008. Amphibians and reptiles of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 575 pp.
  • Jensen, John B.;Payne, Jerry A. 1996. Geographic Distribution. Rhineura floridana. Herpetological Review 27 (3): 153 - get paper here
  • Lönnberg, Einar 1894. Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in Florida in 1892 and 1893. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 17 (1003): 317-339 - get paper here
  • Macey, J. Robert; Theodore J. Papenfuss; Jennifer V. Kuehl; H. Mathew Fourcade and Jeffrey L. Boore 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among amphisbaenian reptiles based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33 (1): 22-31 - get paper here
  • MULVANEY, ABIGAIL; TODD A. CASTOE; KYLE G. ASHTON; KENNETH L. KRYSKO AND CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2005. Evidence of Population Genetic Structure within the Florida Worm Lizard, Rhineura floridana (Amphisbaenia: Rhineuridae). Journal of Herpetology 39 (1): 118-124 - get paper here
  • Westphal, N., Mahlow, K., Head, J. J., & Müller, J. 2019. Pectoral myology of limb-reduced worm lizards (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) suggests decoupling of the musculoskeletal system during the evolution of body elongation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 19(1): 16 - get paper here
  • Zug, George R. 1968. Geographic variation in Rhineura floridana (Reptilia: Amphisbaenidae). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 12 (4): 185-211 - get paper here
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