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Riolama stellata RECODER, PRATES, MARQUES-SOUZA, CAMACHO, SALES-NUNES, VECHIO, GHELLERE, MCDIARMID & RODRIGUES, 2020

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Riolaminae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymRiolama stellata RECODER, PRATES, MARQUES-SOUZA, CAMACHO, SALES-NUNES, VECHIO, GHELLERE, MCDIARMID & RODRIGUES 2020
Riolama sp. nov. b — MCDIARMID et al., 1988: 669
Riolama sp. B (Neblina) — MCDIARMID & DONNELLY 2005: 515, 540
Riolama sp. B (Neblina) — KOK 2015: 501, fig. 7 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas)

Type locality: ‘Bacia do Gelo’, in the highlands of the Serra da Neblina, Parque Nacional do Pico da Neblina, Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil (0°47’34”N, 66°01’30”W; 2000 m a.s.l., datum WGS84)  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 116616, male (field number MTR 40262; Figs 8B, 10), collected on 18 November 2017 by M. T. Rodrigues, A. Camacho, F. Dal Vechio, I. Prates, J. M. Ghellere, R. Recoder and S. Marques-Souza.
Paratypes: Five individuals from Camp II, 3.5 km north-east of Pico Phelps, Cerro de la Neblina, Departamento Río Negro, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela (00°50’12”N, 65°58’48”W; 2085 m a.s.l), USNM 284491 (field number RWM 17671), USNM 284489 (RWM 17680), collected by Alfred L. Gardner on 31 January 1985; USNM 562652 (RWM 17651), on 29 January 1985, and USNM 562653 (RWM 17659), USNM 284490 (RWM 17660), on 30 January 1985, collected by Roy W. McDiarmid; USNM 284492 (RWM 17284), from Camp II, 2.8 km north-east of Pico Phelps, Cerro de la Neblina, Departamento Río Negro, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela (00°50’00”N, 65°58’48”W; 2085–2100 m a.s.l), collected by Roy W. McDiarmid on 21 February 1984; USNM 562654 (ALG 14138), from Camp II, 2.5 km north-east of Pico Phelps, Cerro de la Neblina, Departamento Río Negro, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela (00°50’04”N, 65°58’48”W; 2085 m a.s.l), collected by Alfred L. Gardner on 20 March 1984.
Paratopotypes: MZUSP 116617 (field number MTR 40309) an adult male; MZUSP 116618 (MTR 40312) an adult female, and MZUSP 116619 (MTR 40313), a juvenile male, all from the same locality as the holotype (0°47’34”–0°47’37”N; 66°01’25”–66°01’33”W) collected between 18 November and 20 November 2017, by the same collectors as the holotype. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: The generic diagnosis of R. stellata follows that presented for R. grandis. Riolama stellata is distinguished from the remaining species of Riolama by the following combination of traits: (1) a small body size for the genus (maximum SVL 52.9 mm); (2) head short, HL 0.19 (± 0.01) times SVL; (3) dorsal scales at midbody slightly hexagonal, imbricate, broadly keeled, length 2.5–2.9 times width, dorsal rows clearly defined; (4) 33–38 transverse rows of dorsal scales; (5) 34–38 total scales around midbody; (6) six longitudinal rows of ventral scales; (7) 17–22 transverse rows of ventral scales; (8) 14–23 temporal scales; (9) six to seven supralabials on each side; (10) six to seven infralabials on each side; (11) five to seven scales in the occipital row; (12) five to seven scales in the postoccipital row; (13) eight to 11 femoral pores on each side; (14) short limbs, HLL 0.37 (± 0.02) times SVL, when limbs appressed to trunk, tip of fourth finger overlaps hindfoot to middle of third toe; (15) subdigital lamellae under fourth finger: 11–13; (16) subdigital lamellae under fourth toe: 14–19; (17) tongue surface entirely covered with plicae arranged in chevrons with anteromedial apices; (18) head and body dark (in alcohol), head dorsally and ventrally spotted with cream dots, body unspotted dorsally, ventrally black and heavily spotted with cream dots; (19) chin dark, blotched with cream marks; and (20) hemipenis with laterals consisting of a series of roughly equidistant and moderately developed flounces, each bearing a single spine; absence of the distinctly enlarged hook-shaped spine at the centre of the hemipenial flounces row. 
Comment 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is the Latin adjective stellatus, which means ‘starred’, referring to the ventral and lateral colour pattern composed of light dots scattered on a dark background, which resemble a starry night sky. 
References
  • RECODER, RENATO;IVAN PRATES,SERGIO MARQUES-SOUZA, AGUSTÍN CAMACHO, PEDRO M. SALES-NUNES, FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, JOSÉ MARIO GHELLERE, ROY W. MCDIARMID and MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2020. Lizards from the Lost World: two new species and evolutionary relationships of the Pantepui highland Riolama (Gymnophthalmidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society,XX: 1–27 - get paper here
 
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