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Salvadora grahamiae BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853

IUCN Red List - Salvadora grahamiae - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesSalvadora grahamiae grahamiae BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Salvadora grahamiae lineata SCHMIDT 1940 
Common NamesE: Mountain Patchnose Snake
grahamiae: Mountain Patchnose Snake
lineata: Texas Patchnose Snake
G: Berg-Pflasternasennatter
S: Culebra Chata 
SynonymSalvadora grahamiae BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 104
Phymothyra grahamiae — COPE 1879: 262
Salvadora grahamiae — GARMAN 1884: 37
Salvadora grahamiae — STEBBINS 1985: 185
Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae — TANNER 1985: 640
Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 192
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 193
Salvadora grahamiae — LINER 1994
Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae — DIXON 2000
Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 303
Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae — CROTHER et al. 2012
Salvadora grahamiae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 659

Salvadora grahamiae lineata SCHMIDT 1940
Salvadora lineata SCHMIDT 1940
Salvadora lineata — MARTIN 1958
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — WEBB 1984
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — CROTHER 2000
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — DIXON 2000
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 304
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — CROTHER et al. 2012
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — CRUZ-SILVA 2019 
DistributionUSA (SW Arizona, New Mexico, Texas),
Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Quéretaro, Hidalgo, Nayarit)

grahamiae: W Texas, New Mexico; Mexico (Chihuahua

lineata: USA (Texas), Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Durango, Zacatecas, Pueblo); type locality: Kingsville, Kleburg County, Texas.

Type locality: Sonora  
TypesHolotype: USNM 2081
Holotype: FMNH 28605, paratype: MSNG 37640 [lineata] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Salvadora): snakes with an enlarged rostral scale with free edges; a color pattern consisting of lateral and dorsolateral stripes, and usually a distinct vertebral stripe; and 17 rows of dorsal scales on the anterior and middle part of the body, which are reduced to 13 posteriorly (Bogert 1939).

Diagnosis. A Salvadora with edges of rostral only slightly raised; posterior chin shields in contact or narrowly separated; eight upper labials (occasionally nine); ventrals fewer than in deserticola and hexalepis, and caudals more numerous; caudals more numerous than in lineata, from which it is further distinguished by the usual absence of the lateral narrow line and by the broader dorsal light band; no supra-anal keels in adult males [from SCHMIDT 1940].

Diagnosis [lineata]: A Salvadora with rostral edges little raised, posterior chin shields in contact or narrowly separated, upper labials almost invariably 8-8, lower labials more frequently 9 than 10, ventrals few, 179 to 192 in males, 189 to 194 in females, caudals 90 to 103 in males, 91 to 93 in females. Supra-anal scales not keeled. In most of these characters lineata agrees with grahamiae; it is sharply distinguished from that form by having a well-defined lateral line, which is on the third scale row anteriorly (the second posteriorly). The anterior section of the nasal is usually in contact with the second labial, and the dorsolateral dark stripe passes over the temporal region to the eye [from SCHMIDT 1940]. 
CommentType species: Salvadora grahamiae BAIRD & GIRARD 1853 is the type species of the genus Salvadora BAIRD in BAIRD & GIRARD 1853.

Synonymy: Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic name Aiselfakharius Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected its use instead of Salvadora. 
EtymologyThe generic name is composed of the Latin words salvos, meaning "sound or well preserved" and dura, meaning "tough or outer covering," probably in reference to the smooth, tough skin.
The species is named after James Duncan Graham (1799-1865), American engineer, astronomer and collector of biological specimens. 
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  • Buford, T; Berkshier, S & Graham, S P 2018. Salvadora grahamiae (Eastern Patch-nosed Snake) Diet. Herpetological Review 49 (3): 556 - get paper here
  • Christman, Bruce L.;Kilpatrick, Sandra L.;Painter, Charles W.;Stuart, James N. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Salvadora grahamiae. Herpetological Review 29 (1): 54-55 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger 1942. Notes on the young of three recently described snakes, with comments upon their relationships [Coluber constrictor priapus; Salvadora lineata; Natrix harteri]. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 6 (10): 193-200
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
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  • Cruz-Silva, José Alberto 2019. PRIMER REGISTRO Y DIETA DE LA CULEBRA CHATA (Salvadora grahamiae lineata) EN PUEBLA, MÉXICO. Rev. Latinoamer. Herp. 2 (2): 57-59 - get paper here
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  • Kaiser, H.; Crother, B.I.; Kelly, C.M.R.; Luiselli, L.; O’Shea, M.; Ota, H.; Passos, P.; Schleip, W.D. & Wüster, W. 2013. Best Practices: In the 21st Century, Taxonomic Decisions in Herpetology are Acceptable Only When Supported by a Body of Evidence and Published via Peer-Review. Herpetological Review 44 (1): 8-23
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  • Lazcano, D., R. Quirino-Olvera, M. Nevárez de los Reyes and J. Banda-Leal 2017. Notes on Mexican Herpetofauna 29: Association of Herpetofauna with Sotols and Beargrasses in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 52: 17 - get paper here
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