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Sceloporus cyanogenys COPE, 1885

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Sceloporinae; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesS: Lagartija de Barba Azul
E: Bluechinned Roughscaled Lizard, Blue Spiny Lizard
E: West Gulf Rough-scaled Lizard [plioporus]
S: Escamosa de Pocos Poros [plioporus] 
SynonymSceloporus torquatus cyanogenys COPE 1885: 402
Sceloporus cyanogenys — SMITH 1938: 599
Sceloporus torquatus mucronatus — BOULENGER 1885: 220 (part.)
Sceloporus torquatus poinsetti — BURT 1932: 158 (part.)
Sceloporus serrifer plioporus SMITH 1939: 212
Sceloporus serrifer plioporus — STUART 1948
Sceloporus cyanogenys — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 125
Sceloporus serrifer cariniceps MARTIN 1952
Sceloporus serrifer cariniceps — TAYLOR 1953
Sceloporus cyanogenys — GLAZENBURG 1979
Sceloporus serrifer cyanogenys — OLSON 1987
Sceloporus serrifer cyanogenys — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 105
Sceloporus serrifer cyanogenys — BARTLETT & BARTLETT 1999: 230
Sceloporus cyanogenys — WIENS & REEDER 1997
Sceloporus cyanogenys — CROTHER 2000: 51
Sceloporus cyanogenys — BONETTI 2002: 131
Sceloporus serrifer plioporus — BELL et al. 2003
Sceloporus cyanogenys — BELL et al. 2003
Sceloporus serrifer plioporus — BELL et al. 2003
Sceloporus cyanogenys — ZORN 2004
Sceloporus serrifer cyanogenys — DOST 2005
Sceloporus serrifer cyanogenys — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Sceloporus serrifer plioporus — WIENS et al. 2010
Sceloporus serrifer cyanogenys — WERNING 2018
Sceloporus cyanogenys — PÉREZ-RAMOS 2020
Sceloporus plioporus — PÉREZ-RAMOS 2020
Sceloporus cariniceps — PÉREZ-RAMOS 2020 
DistributionUSA, Mexico (S Texas from Devils River and Starr County to C Tamaulipas and Nuevo León, Coahuila)

Type locality: Monterrey, Nuevo León.

cariniceps: Tamaulipas; Type locality: 8.1 km NE Gómez Farías, Rancho Pano Ayuctle along Río Sabinas.

plioporus: Gulf coast of Mexico from S Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, southward to Petén, Guatemala. Type locality: Four miles east of Encero, Veracruz.  
Reproductionviviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 11304-11305 (also given as USNM 31373-31377 but not in USNM catalog), collected by E. D. Cope
Holotype: UMMZ 101537 [cariniceps] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (plioporus). Similar to serrifer serrifer, differing in average femoral pore count, the count on each thigh 9 to 14, average 11.9 (on both thighs, 20 to 27, average 23.8); dorsal scales smaller, average 31.7 (Smith 1939: 212).

Comparisons (plioporus). In serrifer plioporus the femoral pores vary between nine and 14 (n=68: 9, n=1; 10, n=4; 11, n=18; 12, n=28; 13, n=12; 14, n=5). The counts on both sides in 32 specimens vary between 20 and 27 (20, n=1; 21, n=3; 22, n=4; 23, n=8; 24, n=5; 25, n=8; 26, n=1; 27, n=4). In serrifer serrifer the pore counts vary between eight and 12, average 9.8 (164 counts: 8, ten; 9,fifty; 10,sixty-nine; 11,thirty-two; 12,three). Thecounts on both sides in 81 specimens vary between 16 and 23, average 19.6 (16, three; 17, three; 18, fifteen; 19, sixteen; 20, nineteen; 21, sixteen; 22,eight; 23,one). Inserriferplioporus,92.6percentofthefemoral pore counts (one side) are 11 or more; in s. serrifer, 21.3 per cent are 11 or more. In s. plioporus, 88.2 per cent of the counts in each specimen (both sides) are 22 or more; in s. serrifer, 11.1 per cent are 22 or more.
The dorsal scales in s. plioporus vary between 30 and 35 (30, seven; 31, four; 32, five; 33, five; 34, two; 35, one); in s. serrifer, the variation is between 28 and 32, average 30 (28, four; 29, five; 30, six; 31, five; 32, four). In s. plioporus, 70.8 per cent of the dorsal scale counts are 31 or more; in s. serrifer, 37.5 per cent are 31 or more (Smith 1939: 212).

Diagnosis (cyanogenys): Dorsal scales weakly keeled, mucronate, with several lateral denticulations, 32 to 40 from occiput to base of tail; lateral scales in oblique rows, somewhat larger than median dorsals; fourth toe about equal to distance from snout to posterior border of ear; hind leg 59 to 67 per cent of snout-vent measurement; fourth toe 20 to 25 per cent of snout-vent measurement; supraoculars irregular, not in two equal rows, rarely in a single row; median cephalic scales not extremely irregular; preocular rarely divided; inner row of labiomentals rarely terminating posterior to suture between second and third infralabials; rows of lorilabials usually not reduced to one at a point below subocular; femoral pores usually twelve or more on each side. General ground color greenish-blue (brownish prior to shedding); nuchal black collar four to five scales wide, sometimes continued on ventral surface, bordered anteriorly and posteriorly by a light band one or one and one-half scales wide, both interrupted
medially by a dark scale; a light spot in center of interparietal and of each parietal; body without or with faint darker markings; throat and sides of belly in males pearl blue to flax-flower blue or campanula blue; lateral abdominal blue areas in males with a dark-blue medial border not encroaching on anterior distal surface of femur; throat not barred or rayed (Smith 1939: 221).

Diagnosis (cariniceps): Similar to S. s. serrifer, differing mainly in its keeled or
ridged, rather than smooth, flat head scales, in lacking a complete row of sinall scales separating the median head shields from the supraoculars, and in a lower mean number of fourth toe lamellae. From S. s. plioporus it differs in lower femoral pore count (16-22, av. 19.68), lower number ol toe lamellae (31-38, av. 35.24), and keeled head scales (Table I, Martin 1952).

Color (cariniceps). Ground color varies from pale dusky tan to metallic bluish green. Black nuchal collar two to four, usually three, scales in width; both anterior and posterior light borders interrupted medially. Males with bright blue belly patches, edged medially with a heavy black border two or three scales wide; throats tinged with varying amounts of blue or purple. Dorsal keels of females black tipped, producing a characteristic streaked appearance; throats and bellies dull white or cream (Martin 1952: 4). 
CommentSynonymy: MARTINEZ-MENDEZ & MENDEZ DE LA CRUZ 2007 synonymized Sceloporus serrifer plioporus with Sceloporus cyanogenys (although Wiens et al. 2013 say they did not). The original morphological difference between putative populations of S. s. plioporus and S. cyanogenys, was the divided supraoculars scales in the latter (Smith 1939). However, on closer inspection, these differences are not supported (Olson, 1987) because the percentage of individuals with divided supraoculars scales increases northwardly.

Distribution: endemic to Mexico fide Johnson et al. 2017, but reported from Texas by Dixon 2000 (map 66A). Not in Yucatan state (Mexico) according to GONZÁLEZ-SÁNCHEZ et al. 2017. Distribution: Not listed for San Luis Potosí by Lemos-Espinal et al. 2018 (checklist SLP).

Hybridization: C. serrifer and S. (s.) cyanogenys intergrade (OLSON 1987). 
EtymologyEtymology (cyanogenys): The Latin noun cyaneus "deep blue" and the Greek noun genys "jaw or chin" refer to the blue throat of males.

Etymology (plioporus): The Greek adjective plio, "more," and noun porus, "pore," refer to the larger number of femoral pores in this subspecies than in S. s. serrifer. 
References
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
  • Bell, E.L.; Smith, H.M. & Chiszar, D. 2003. AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE SPECIES-GROUP NAMES APPLIED TO THE LIZARD GENUS SCELOPORUS. Acta Zoologica Mexicana (n.s.) 90: 103-174 - get paper here
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1932. Some Mexican herpetological records. Copeia 1932 (3): 158 - get paper here
  • Bustard, H.R. 1963. Sexual Dichromatism in Sceloporus Cyanogenys Herpetologica 19 (2): 149-150. - get paper here
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  • Johnson, J. D., L. D. Wilson, V. Mata-Silva, E. García-Padilla, and D. L. DeSantis. 2017. The endemic herpetofauna of Mexico: organisms of global significance in severe peril. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(3): 544–620 - get paper here
  • Kennedy, J. P. 1960. Parturition of the blue spiny lizard, Sceloporus cyanogenys Cope. Southwestern Naturalist 5 (1): 45-46 - get paper here
  • Lazcano D, Nevárez-de los Reyes M, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, DeSantis DL, Wilson LD. 2019. The herpetofauna of Coahuila, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13(2) [General Section]: 31–94 (e189) - get paper here
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  • Nevárez-de-los-Reyes, Manuel, David Lazcano, Elí García-Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The Herpetofauna of Nuevo León, Mexico: Composition, Distribution, and Conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (3): 558–638 - get paper here
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  • Songdahl, J.H. & V.H. Hutchison 1972. The Effect of Photoperiod, Parietalectomy and Eye Enucleation on oxygen Consumption in the Blue Granite Lizard, Sceloporus cyanogenys Herpetologica 28 (2): 148-156. - get paper here
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