You are here » home advanced search search results Sceloporus occidentalis

Sceloporus occidentalis BAIRD & GIRARD, 1852

IUCN Red List - Sceloporus occidentalis - Least Concern, LC

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Sceloporus occidentalis?

Add your own observation of
Sceloporus occidentalis »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Sceloporinae; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesSceloporus occidentalis biseriatus HALLOWELL 1854
Sceloporus occidentalis bocourtii BOULENGER 1885
Sceloporus occidentalis longipes BAIRD 1859
Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis BAIRD & GIRARD 1852
Sceloporus occidentalis taylori CAMP 1916 
Common NamesE: Western Fence Lizard, Pacific blue-bellied lizard
G: Westlicher Stachelleguan
S: Bejori de Cerca Occidental
biseriatus: San Joaquin Fence Lizard
bocourtii: Coast Range Fence Lizard
longipes: Great Basin Fence Lizard
occidentalis: Northwestern Fence Lizard
taylori: Sierra Fence Lizard 
SynonymSceloporus occidentalis BAIRD & GIRARD 1852
Sceloporus occidentalis — STEJNEGER 1893: 186
Sceloporus undulatus occidentalis — BURT 1933
Sceloporus occidentalis — STEBBINS 1985: 130
Sceloporus occidentalis — LINER 1994
Sceloporus occidentalis — WIENS et a. 2010

Sceloporus occidentalis biseriatus HALLOWELL 1854: 93
Sceloporus biseriatus var. A, azureus HALLOWELL, 1854: 93
Sceloporus occidentalis var. b, variegatus HALLOWELL 1854: 94
Sceloporus biseriatus nigro-ventris BOCOURT 1874: 199 (part.)
Sceloporus bi-seriatus — STEJNEGER 1893: 184
Sceloporus biseriatus —VAN DENBURGH 1895: 114
Sceloporus occidentalis biseriatus — VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921
Sceloporus undulatus biseriatus — BURT 1933
Sceloporus occidentalis biseriatus — CROTHER 2000
Sceloporus occidentalis biseriatus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Sceloporus occidentalis bocourtii BOULENGER 1885
Sceloporus occidentalis bocourtii — BELL 1954
Sceloporus occidentalis bocourtii — CROTHER 2000
Sceloporus occidentalis bocourtii — BELL et al. 2003
Sceloporus occidentalis bocourtii — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Sceloporus occidentalis longipes BAIRD 1859: 254
Sceloporus longipes BAIRD 1859: 254
Sceloporus smaragdinus COPE in YARROW 1875: 572 (not BOCOURT)
Sceloporus biseriatus nigro-ventris BOCOURT 1874: 199 (part.)
Sceloporus occidentalis longipes — BELL 1954
Sceloporus occidentalis longipes — CROTHER 2000
Sceloporus longipes — PHILIPPS 2003
Sceloporus occidentalis longipes — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Sceloporus occidentalis longipes — BARTS 2018

Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis BAIRD & GIRARD 1852
Sceloporus frontalis BAIRD & GIRARD 1852: 175
Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis — CROTHER 2000
Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Sceloporus occidentalis taylori CAMP 1916: 65
Sceloporus occidentalis taylori — CROTHER 2000
Sceloporus occidentalis taylori — BELL et al. 2003
Sceloporus occidentalis taylori — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009 
DistributionUSA (Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, W Utah),
Mexico (N Baja California Norte, Isla de Cedros)

biseriatus: S Idaho, southwest through Nevada and W Utah into California and the San Pedro Mártir Range in Baja California. Type locality: Borders of El Paso Creek and Tejon Valley. Restricted to El Paso Creek by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950. (El Paso Creek is in Kern Co., about ten miles
northeast of Ft. Tejon).

bocourti: USA (California). Type Locality: Restricted by Bell (1954), through lectotype designation, to Santa Cruz, Santa
Cruz Co., California.

longipes: Type Locality: Fort Tejon, California [Kern County].

taylori: Type Locality: Half-way between Merced Lake and Sunrise Trail (Echo Creek Basin), elevation 7500 feet, Yosemite National Park, California.

Type locality: “California and probably Oregon”; restricted to “Benicia, Solano County, California” by GRINNEL & CAMP 1917  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: USNM 2838, 2866, collected by Dr. J. S. Newberry during the U. S. Exploring Expedition in 1838-1842. No. 2838 is lost, and until 1996 No. 2866 was also thought to be lost (as implied by its absence in Cochran's 1961 list). Accordingly, Bell (1954) designated a neotype, MVZ 59874, collected by Robert C. Stebbins. After discovery of the existence of USNM 2866 (two syntypes), Bell et al. (2001) petitioned the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature for acceptance of the designated neotype as the name-bearer, rather than the rediscovered syntypes, as required by the Code (ICZN, 1999).
Lectotype: ANSP 8476 (Bell, 1954), collected by Dr. Heermann [biseriatus]
Lectotype: BMNH 1946.9.6.98 (formerly 1885.11.5, Santa Cruz, California, designated by Bell (1954) [bocourti].
Syntypes: (3) ANSP 8477-79; California, Tejon Valley, El Paso Creek [azureus]
Lectotype: USNM 4358 A, collected by John Xantus, designated by Bell (1954); SYNTYPE: INHS (= UIMNH) 40726 [longipes]
Syntypes; Four: USNM 8612, collected by Yarrow in 1872 [Sceloporus smaragdinus COPE in YARROW 1875]
Holotype: MVZ 5947, collected by Walter P. Taylor, 25 August 1915 [taylori]
Holotype: lost; was USNM 3072 [Sceloporus frontalis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (occidentalis): This subspecies can be distinguished from members of the biseriatus exerge by its smaller size, and from all other subspecies by the possession of lateral, prominent, and distinctly separate blue gular semeions, or a large blue gular semeion divided by a single row of medial light scales. The chest, chin, and interabdominal semeion areas (IASA) are light-colored, often white. Five or more gular semeion scales are at least 50% blue in females, whereas at least 20 such scales are present in males (Bell & Price 1996).

Diagnosis (becki): This subspecies can be distinguished from members of the occidentalis exerge by its relatively larger size, and from all other subspecies by the large undivided blackish medial gular semeion with black lines radiating forward to the edges of the chin, with pale blue on the chin between the black lines (Bell & Price 1996).

Diagnosis (biseriatus): This subspecies can be distinguished from members of the occidentalis exerge by its relatively larger size, and from all other subspecies except longipes and immature taylori by the occurrence in adult males of a large single blue gular semeion without radiating dark lines, which occasionally is indented or divided, and a dark gray to black chest, ventral surface of thighs, and IASAs. It can be distinguished from longipes by relatively higher dorsal and ventral scale counts (Bell & Price 1996).

Diagnosis (bocourtii): This subspecies can be distinguished from members of the biseriatus exerge by its smaller size, and from all other subspecies by the virtual absence of blue gular semeions. Gular scales which are at least 50% blue averaged 1.4 (0-16, N = 84) in adult females and 7.4 (0-45, N = 101) in adult males. Of the females examined, 66 (78.5%) had no blue gular scales. Adult males examined generally had fewer than 20 such scales, and in 43 (42.5%) blue gular scales were absent (Bell, 1954b). The chest, chin, and IASA are light-colored, often white (Bell & Price 1996).

Diagnosis (longipes): This subspecies can be distinguished from members of the occidentalis exerge by its relatively larger size, and from all other subspecies except biseriatus by the occurrence in adult males of a large single blue gular semeion without radiating dark lines, which occasionally is indented or divided, and a dark gray to black chest, ventral surface of thighs, and IASAs. It can be distinguished from biseriatus by relatively lower dorsal and ventral scale counts (Bell & Price 1996).

Diagnosis (taylori): Adults of this subspecies may be distinguished from all other subspecies except biseriatus by relatively high dorsal and ventral scale counts, and from all other subspecies by their unique ventral coloration. Adults larger than 75 mm SVL show with increasing age extensive blue coloration on the chin, chest, and between the abdominal semeions, with the black borders of the semeions becoming blue, until at about 81 mm SVL in males almost the entire venter from the chin to the posterior abdomen, and the ventral surfaces of the hind limbs, are blue (Basey, 1976, Bell & Price 1996). 
CommentSubspecies: S. o. becki has been elevated to full species.

Types: The Commission of Zoological Nomenclature has designated a neotype for Sceloporus occidentalis from the west coast ranges of North America. The neotype, originally designated in 1954, is a well preserved adult specimen of known provenance and replaces two missing syntypes which have recently been rediscovered but which are immature specimens and do not distinguish S. occidentalis from closely related taxa (Opinion 2024, Bull. Zool. Nomencl.).

Sceloporus smaragdinus COPE in YARROW 1875: 572 is a junior primary homonym of S. smaragdinus Bocourt (1873).

Illustrations: S. occidentalis was the most-photographed species in iNaturalist with >40,000 images in 2020 (Marshall et al. 2020).

S. o. longipes is the form sympatric with S. undulatus tristichus in the Pine Valley Mountains of southwestern Utah (Cole, 1983; Smith and Chiszar, 1989).

Distribution: see Leache 2009: 549 for a map. 
EtymologyEtymology (azureus): This adjective is Latinized from the French azur, "a blue color," and refers to the blue color of the dorsal scales of the syntypes.

Etymology (biseriatus): The name is an adjective from Latin bis-, "two," and series, "series," and refers to the two, or double, dorsolateral light lines.

Etymology (bocourti): The Latinized noun in the genitive singular honors Marie-Firmin Bocourt, a French herpetologist most widely known for his major contributions to the “Mission Scientifique au Mexique”.

Etymology (longipes): The Latin long, "long," and pes, "foot," refer to the elongate toes.

Etymology (occidentalis): The Latin words occidens, "the west," and -alis, "pertaining to," are the bases for the nominal species.

Etymology (taylori): The Latin genitive singular noun honors the collector, Walter P. Taylor, widely travelled in the early twentieth century in Mexico as well as the United States as a member of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
References
  • Anonymous 2003. OPINION 2024 (Case 3140) - Sceloporus occidentalis Baird & Girard, 1852 (Reptilia, Sauria): rediscovered syntypes replaced by a neotype. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 60 (1): - get paper here
  • Baird, S.F. 1859. Description of new genera and species of North American lizards in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 10: 253-256 [1858] - get paper here
  • Baird, S.F. and Girard,C. 1852. Descriptions of new species of reptiles, collected by the U.S. exploring expedition under the command of Capt. Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. First part. - Including the species from the Western coast of America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 6: 174-177 - get paper here
  • Banta, B.H. & D.B. Mazzarella 1977. Seasonal Occurrence of Sceloporus occidentalis on Palomar Mountain, San Diego County, California Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 13(2): 112-113. - get paper here
  • Barrows, Cameron W. B 2018. RESPONSES OF A MONTANE LIZARD ASSEMBLAGE TO AN EXTENDED DROUGHT. The Southwestern Naturalist Sep 2018 Vol. 63, No. 3: 173-181 - get paper here
  • Barts, M. 2018. Drei Jahre im urbanen Lebensraum von Sceloporus occidentalis longipes. Reptilia 23 (131): 36-41
  • Bell E. L. Price A H. 1996. Sceloporus occidentalis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (631): 1-17 - get paper here
  • Bell, E. L. 1954. A preliminary report on the subspecies of the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis and its relationships to the eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus. Herpetologica 10: 31-36 - get paper here
  • Bell, E.L. 2001. Taxonomic status of Sceloporus becki, the Island Fence Lizard from the Channel Islands, Santa Barbara Co., California. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 37: 137-142 - get paper here
  • Bell, E.L.; Smith, H.M. & Chiszar, D. 2001. Sceloporus occidentalis Baird & Girard 1852 (Reptilia, Sauria): proposed replacement of rediscovered syntypes by a neotype. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 58 (3): 224-226 - get paper here
  • Bell, E.L.; Smith, H.M. & Chiszar, D. 2003. AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE SPECIES-GROUP NAMES APPLIED TO THE LIZARD GENUS SCELOPORUS. Acta Zoologica Mexicana (n.s.) 90: 103-174 - get paper here
  • Bethea, C.L. & R.F. Walker 1978. Parietal Eye-Pineal Gland Interactions in the Lizard Sceloporus occidentalis (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae) Journal of Herpetology 12 (1): 83-87. - get paper here
  • Bezy, R. L. 1991. Western fence lizard. Terra 29 (2-3): 64-65
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1933. Some lizards from the Great Basin of the West and adjacent areas, with comments on the status of various forms. American Midland Naturalist 14: 228-250 - get paper here
  • Camp, C.L. 1916. The subspecies of Sceloporus occidentalis, with description of a new form from the Sierra Nevada and systematic notes on other California lizards. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 17: 63-74
  • Clark, W.H. 1973. Autumnal Diet of the San Joaquin Fence Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis biseriatus Hallowell, in West-Central Nevada Herpetologica 29 (1): 73-75. - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J. 1983. Specific status of the North American fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus and Sceloporus occidentalis, with comments on chromosome variation. American Museum Novitates (2768): 1-13 - get paper here
  • Coleman, P.R. & R.L. Livezey 1968. Infrared Reflection of the Integument of Live Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis Baird and Girard from Three Habitats Journal of Herpetology 1 (1/4): 71-75. - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. and T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Cooper, W.E., Jr. & G.W. Ferguson 1973. Induction of Physiological Color Change in Male Sceloporus occidentalis by Epinephrine Copeia 1973 (2): 341-342. - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Herpetological Circular 29: 1-82
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Davis, J. 1967. Growth and Size of the Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) Copeia 1967 (4): 721-731. - get paper here
  • Davis, J. 1980. The Times of Mating and Oviposition of the Western Fence Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis Journal of Herpetology 14 (1): 102. - get paper here
  • Davis, J. & R.G. Ford 1983. Home Range in the Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis) Copeia 1983 (4): 933-940. - get paper here
  • Davis, John;Verbeek, Nicolaas A. M. 1972. Habitat preferences and the distribution of Uta stansburiana and Sceloporus occidentalis in coastal California. Copeia 1972 (4): 643-649 - get paper here
  • Dunlap, K.D. 1995. Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Food and Water Deprivation in a Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis): Implications for Assessing Stress in a Natural Population Journal of Herpetology 29 (3): 345-351. - get paper here
  • Dunlap, K.D. 2006. Ontogeny and Scaling of Hematocrit and Blood Viscosity in Western Fence Lizards, Sceloporus Occidentalis Copeia 2006 (3): 535-538. - get paper here
  • Eisen, R.J. & J.J. Schall 1997. Comparing Foraging Success in Submissive Malaria-infected and Territorial Noninfected Fence Lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) Journal of Herpetology 31 (1): 147-149. - get paper here
  • Ervin, Edward L. and Clark R. Mahrdt. 2014. Sceloporus occidentalis (western fence lizard) and Sceloporus orcutti (granite spiny lizard) feeding behavior and diet. Herpetological Review 45 (3): 506 - get paper here
  • Fine, P.V.A. 1999. Aerial Predator Recognition by Free-ranging Sceloporus occidentalis Journal of Herpetology 33 (1): 128-131. - get paper here
  • Fitch, H. S. 1936. Amphibians and reptiles of the Rouge River Basin, Oregon. American Midland Naturalist 17: 634-652 - get paper here
  • Fitch, H. S. 1978. Sexual size differences in the genus Sceloporus. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 51 (13): 441-461 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, S.R. 1973. Ovarian Cycle of the Western Fence Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis Herpetologica 29 (3): 284-289. - get paper here
  • Goldberg, S.R. 1974. Reproduction in Mountain and Lowland Populations of the Lizard Sceloporus occidentalis Copeia 1974 (1): 176-182. - get paper here
  • Goldberg, S.R. 1989. A Hermaphroditic Western Fence Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis (Iguanidae) Copeia 1989 (2): 486-488. - get paper here
  • Gomard, Guillaume 2017. In steinigen Wüsten: die Herpetofauna Südkaliforniens. Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (6): 52-61 - get paper here
  • Gray, R.L. & D.C. Stroud 1980. A Winter Aggregation of the Western Fence Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis Journal of Herpetology 14 (1): 103. - get paper here
  • Grinnell, J. & CAMP, C.L. 1917. A distributional list of the amphibians and reptiles of California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 17: 127-208
  • Grismer, L. Lee;Mellink, Eric 1994. The addition of Sceloporus occidentalis to the herpetofauna of Isla de Cedros, Baja California, México and its historical and taxonomic implications. Journal of Herpetology 28 (1): 120-126 - get paper here
  • Hallowell,E. 1854. Description of new reptiles from California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 7 [1854]: 91-97 - get paper here
  • Henry, Taylor S. 2013. Sceloporus occidentalis longipes (Great Basin fence lizard) diet. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 329 - get paper here
  • Jackson, L.; Hunsaker, D. 1970. Chromosome morphology of sceloporine lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis and S. graciosus). Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 26(2):198-199 - get paper here
  • Jameson, E.W., Jr. & A. Allison 1976. Fat and Breeding Cycles in Two Montane Populations of Sceloporus occidentalis (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae) Journal of Herpetology 10 (3): 211-220. - get paper here
  • Jameson, E.W., Jr., A.A. Heusner & D. Lem 1980. Seasonal, Sexual and Altitudinal Variations in Stomach Content and Ingested Fat in Sceloporus occidentalis Journal of Herpetology 14 (3): 255-261. - get paper here
  • Johnson, C.R. 1965. The Diet of the Pacific Fence Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis (Baird and Girard), from Northern California Herpetologica 21 (2): 114-117. - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Keehn, J. E.; N. C. Nieto, C. R. Tracy, C. M. Gienger and C. R. Feldman 2013. Evolution on a desert island: body size divergence between the reptiles of Nevada's Anaho Island and the mainland around Pyramid Lake. Journal of Zoology, 291: 269–278. doi: 10.1111/jzo.12066 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. & Heimes, P. 2002. Stachelleguane. Herpeton-Verlag (Offenbach), 174 pp.
  • Lambert, Max R., Catherine M. Yasuda and Brian D. Todd. 2013. Ontogenetic shift in habitat use in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) in northern California. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 579-582 - get paper here
  • Larson, M.W. 1961. The Critical Thermal Maximum of the Lizard Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis Baird and Girard Herpetologica 17 (2): 113-122. - get paper here
  • Leaché, A.D. 2009. SPECIES TREE DISCORDANCE TRACES TO PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC CLADE BOUNDARIES IN NORTH AMERICAN FENCE LIZARDS (SCELOPORUS). Systematic Biology 58(6): 547-559 - get paper here
  • Leaché, A.D. 2010. Species trees for spiny lizards (Genus Sceloporus): Identifying points of concordance and conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54: 162–171 - get paper here
  • Leaché, A.D. & J.W.Sites, Jr. 2009. Chromosome Evolution and Diversification in North American Spiny Lizards (Genus Sceloporus). Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 166-181 - get paper here
  • Leaché, A.D. & Reeder, T.W. 2002. Molecular systematics of the Eastern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus undulatus): a comparision of parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian approaches. Systematic Biology 51 (1): 44-68 - get paper here
  • Lillywhite, H.B. & F. North 1974. Perching Behavior of Sceloporus occidentalis in Recently Burned Chaparral Copeia 1974 (1): 256-257. - get paper here
  • Lumbad, Anthony S.; Larisa K. Vredevoe, and Emily N. Taylor 2011. Season and Sex of Host Affect Intensities of Ectoparasites in Western Fence Lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) on the Central Coast of California. Southwestern Naturalist 56 (3): 369-377. - get paper here
  • Marcellini, D. & J.P. MacKey 1970. Habitat Preferences of the Lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis and S. graciosus (Lacertilia, Iguanidae) Herpetologica 26 (1): 51-56. - get paper here
  • Marshall BM, Freed P, Vitt L, Bernardo P, Vogel G, Lotzkat S, Franzen M, Hallermann J, Sage RD, Bush B, Ribeiro-Duarte M, Avila LJ, Jandzik D, Klusmeyer B & Uetz P 2020. An inventory of online reptile images. Zootaxa 4896 (2): 251–264 - get paper here
  • Mathews, C.G. & C.J. Amlaner 2000. Eye States and Postures of the Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), with Speciel Reference to Asynchronous Eye Closure and Behavioral Sleep Journal of Herpetology 34 (3): 472-475. - get paper here
  • Mazzarella, D.B. 1976. Respiratory Changes during Attempted Induced Hibernation in Sceloporus occidentalis in San Diego County, California Copeia 1976 (2): 310-314. - get paper here
  • McGinnis, S.M. 1970. Flexibility of Thermoregulatory Behavior in the Western Fence Lizard Sceloporus occidentalis Herpetologica 26 (1): 70-76. - get paper here
  • Miles, D.B.; Noecker, R.; Roosenburg, W.M. & White, M.M. 2002. Genetic relationships among populations of Sceloporus undulatus fail to support present subspecific designations. Herpetologica 58 (3): 277-292 - get paper here
  • ORD, T. J.; D. A. KLOMP, J. GARCIA-PORTA & M. HAGMAN 2015. Repeated evolution of exaggerated dewlaps and other throat morphology in lizards. J. evol. Biol., doi: 10.1111/jeb.12709 - get paper here
  • Otvos, I.S. 1977. Observations on the food of three forest-dwelling lizards in California. Herpetological Review 8 (1): 6-7 - get paper here
  • Phillips, C.A. 2003. HERPETOLOGICAL TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY: AN UPDATE TO THE PRIMARY TYPES. [type catalogue] University of Illinois Museum of Natural History, 17 pp.
  • Powers, Sean D.; Matthew R. McTernan, Donald R. Powers, and Roger A. Anderson 2018. Energetic Consequences for a Northern, Range-Edge Lizard Population. Copeia 106 (3): 468-476. - get paper here
  • Putman BJ, Drury JP, Blumstein DT, Pauly GB 2017. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior. PLoS One 12 (8): e0182146 - get paper here
  • Putman, B.J., Gasca, M., Blumstein, D.T. & G. B. Pauly 2019. Downsizing for downtown: limb lengths, toe lengths, and scale counts decrease with urbanization in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis). Urban Ecosyst. - get paper here
  • Putman, Breanna J, and Zachary A Tippie. 2020. Big City Living: A Global Meta-Analysis Reveals Positive Impact of Urbanization on Body Size in Lizards . Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution - get paper here
  • Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A., Good, David A., Wake, David B. 2003. Brief History of Herpetology in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, with a List of Type Specimens of Recent Amphibians and Reptiles. UC Publications in Zoology, 119 pp. - get paper here
  • Roe, J.H.; Hopkins, W.A. & Talent, L.G. 2005. Effects of Body Mass, Feeding, and Circadian Cycles on Metabolism in the Lizard Sceloporus occidentalis. Journal of Herpetology 39 (4): 595–603 - get paper here
  • Rose, B.R. 1976. Dietary Overlap of Sceloporus occidentalis and S. graciosus Copeia 1976 (4): 818-820. - get paper here
  • Schall, J.J. & G.A. Sarni 1987. Malarial Parasitism and the Behavior of the Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis Copeia 1987 (1): 84-93. - get paper here
  • Schall, J.J. & P.R. Houle 1992. Malarial Parasitism and Home Range and Social Status of Male Western Fence Lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis Journal of Herpetology 26 (1): 74-76. - get paper here
  • Schall, J.J., H.R. Prendeville & K.A. Hanley 2000. Prevalence of the Tick, Ixodes pacificus on Western Fence Lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis: Trends by Gender, Size, Season, Site, and Mite Infestation Journal of Herpetology 34 (1): 160-163. - get paper here
  • Scholnick, David A.; Nathan T. Gilpin, and Richard V. Manivanh 2012. Disruption to Recovery Metabolism in the Fence Lizard Sceloporus occidentalis Infected with the Malarial Parasite Plasmodium mexicanum. Journal of Herpetology 46 (4): 643-647. - get paper here
  • Scholnick, David A.; Richard V. Manivanh, Olesya D. Savenkova, Tony G. Bates, and Shana L. McAlexander 2010. Impact of Malarial Infection on Metabolism and Thermoregulation in the Fence Lizard Sceloporus occidentalis from Oregon. Journal of Herpetology 44 (4): 634–640 - get paper here
  • Seddon, Ryan J.; Diana K. Hews 2016. Phenotypic correlates of melanization in two Sceloporus occidentalis (Phrynosomatidae) populations: Behavior, androgens, stress reactivity, and ectoparasites. Physiology & Behavior, doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.04.039 - get paper here
  • Shannon, F.A. 1950. Some Additional Remarks on the Status of the Species Sceloporus occidentalis Herpetologica 6 (2): 31-32. - get paper here
  • Shedd, J. D. & Eisenberg, R. 2012. Sceloporus occidentalis (western fence lizard) necrophilia. Herpetological Review 43: 338 - get paper here
  • Sheldahl, L.A. & E.P. Martins 2000. The Territorial Behavior of the Western Fence Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis Herpetologica 56 (4): 469-479. - get paper here
  • Sinervo, B. et al. 2010. Erosion of Lizard Diversity by Climate Change and Altered Thermal Niches. Science 328: 894-899
  • Smith, H. M. 1939. The Mexican and Central American lizards of the genus Sceloporus. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 26: 1-397. - get paper here
  • Smith, H.M. & Taylor,E.H. 1950. An annotated checklist and key to the reptiles of Mexico exclusive of the snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 199: 1-253 - get paper here
  • Sparkman A, Howe S, Hynes S, Hobbs B, Handal K 2018. Parallel behavioral and morphological divergence in fence lizards on two college campuses. PLoS One 13 (2): e0191800 - get paper here
  • Stebbins, R.C. 1960. Effects of pinealectomy in the western fence lizard Sceloporus occidentalis Copeia 1960 (4): 276-283. - get paper here
  • Stebbins, R.C. & N.W. Cohen 1973. The effect of parietalectomy on the thyroid and gonads in free-living western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis Copeia 1973 (4): 662-668. - get paper here
  • Stebbins, R.C. & W. Tong 1973. Epithelial cell height as a measure of thyroid activity in free-living western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis Copeia 1973 (4): 668-672. - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger, L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Stone, N.W. 1942. Observations on Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis Copeia 1942 (2): 129. - get paper here
  • Talbot, H.E. & R.L. Livezey 1964. Integumental Reflectivity of Live Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis from Four Habitats Herpetologica 19 (4): 269-274. - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W.;Hopkin, James M. 1972. Ecology of Sceloporus occidentalis longipes Baird and Uta stansburiana stansburiana Baird and Girard on Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin 15 (4): 1-39
  • Turner, Frederick B.;Wauer, Roland H. 1963. A survey of the herpetofauna of the Death Valley area. Great Basin Naturalist 23 (3-4): 119-128 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1905. The reptiles and amphibians of the islands of the Pacific Coast of North America from the Farallons to Cape San Lucas and the Revilla Gigedos. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 3) 4 (1): 1-40 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. and Slevin,J.R. 1921. A list of the amphibians and reptiles of Nevada, with notes on the species in the collection of the academy. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 11 (2): 27-38 - get paper here
  • Wang, J.P. & S.C. Adolph 1995. Thermoregulatory Consequences of Transmitter Implant Surgery in the Lizard Sceloporus occidentalis Journal of Herpetology 29 (3): 489-493. - get paper here
  • Weathers, W.W. & F.N. White 1972. Hematological Observations on Populations of the Lizard Sceloporus occidentalis from Sea Level and Altitude Herpetologica 28 (2): 172-175. - get paper here
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Wiens, John J.; Caitlin A. Kuczynski, Saad Arif & Tod W. Reeder 2010. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF PHRYNOSOMATID LIZARDS BASED ON NUCLEAR AND MITOCHONDRIAL DATA, AND A REVISED PHYLOGENY FOR SCELOPORUS. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54: 150-161 - get paper here
  • Wiens, John J.;Reeder, Tod W. 1997. Phylogeny of the spiny lizards (Sceloporus) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Herpetological Monographs 11: 1-101 - get paper here
  • Wilhoft, D.C. 1958. The Effect of Temperature on Thyroid Histology and Survival in the Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis Copeia 1958 (4): 265-276. - get paper here
  • Wishingrad, V. and Thomson, R. C. 2020. Ecological variability is associated with functional trait diversity in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. - get paper here
  • Woodbury, Angus Munn 1928. The reptiles of Zion National Park. Copeia 1928 (166): 14-21 - get paper here
  • Zani, P.A. 2001. Clinging Performance of the Western Fence Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis Herpetologica 57 (4): 423-432. - get paper here
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

https://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Sceloporus&species=occidentalis

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.



Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator