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Sceloporus undulatus (BOSC & DAUDIN, 1801)

IUCN Red List - Sceloporus undulatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Sceloporinae; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Fence Lizard
E : Northern Plateau Lizard [elongatus]
E: Red-lipped Plateau Lizard [erythrocheilus]
E: Northern Prairie Lizard [garmani]
E: Northern Fence Lizard [hyacinthinus]
E: Spear's Prairie Lizard [speari]
E: Mescalero Prairie Lizard, Mescalero Dunes Fence Lizard [tedbrowni]
E: Southern Fence Lizard, Eastern Fence Lizard [undulatus]
S: Vejore Oriental de Cerca 
SynonymStellio undulatus BOSC & DAUDIN in SONNINI & LATREILLE 1801: 40
Lacerta undulata BOSC 1801
Stellio undulatus LATREILLE 1801: 40 (fide LINER 1994)
Agama undulata DAUDIN 1802: 384 (fide DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837)
Lacerta hyacinthina GREEN 1818: 349.
Lacerta fasciata GREEN 1818: 349
Lopherpes dicyanelus RAFINESQUE 1832: 143-144 (fide SCHMIDT 1953)
Stellio dicyanelus RAFINESQUE 1832: 143-144 (fide SCHMIDT 1953)
Tropidolepis Undulatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 298
Sceloporus thayerii BAIRD & GIRARD 1852: 127 (fide BELL et al. 2003)
Tropidolepis Undulatus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 270
Sceloporus floridanus BAIRD 1859: 254
Sceloporus thayerii BOCOURT 1874 (fide SMITH 1939)
Sceloporus undulatus — BOULENGER 1885: 227
Sceloporus undulatus thayerii — FORCE 1928
Sceloporus undulatus thayerii — TAYLOR 1929: 64
Sceloporus spinosus floridanus — ALLEN 1932
Sceloporus undulatus undulatus — ALLEN 1932
Sceloporus undulatus undulatus — SMITH 1938
Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus — MACMAHON 1962
Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus — COOPER 1965
Sceloporus undulatus — STEBBINS 1985: 131
Sceloporus undulatus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 106
Sceloporus undulatus (exerge undulatus) hyacinthinus — SMITH et al. 1992
Sceloporus undulatus (exerge undulatus) undulatus — SMITH et al. 1992
Sceloporus undulatus — LINER 1994
Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus — BARTLETT & BARTLETT 1999: 233
Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus — CROTHER 2000
Sceloporus undulatus undulatus — CROTHER 2000
Sceloporus undulatus undulatus — BELL et al. 2003 
DistributionUSA (Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, S Wyoming, S South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Mississippi, S Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, S Illinois, S Indiana, S Ohio, Wisconsin, S Pennsylvania, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, Florida),
Mexico (N/E Chihuahua, Coahuila, N Zacatecas),

floridanus: USA (Florida); Type Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida.

hyacinthinus: USA (Missouri, West Virginia, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Jersey, Virginia, etc.); Type Locality: None stated. "Probably the vicinity of Princeton, New Jersey" (Stejneger and Barbour, 1943). Neotype locality: Crossley Preserve, western Berkeley Township, Ocean County, New Jersey, 4.76 mi (7.05 km) directly west of the Garden State Parkway bridge over Toms River at Toms River, New Jersey.

thayerii: USA (Texas), Mexico (Sonora); Type Locality: "Indianola [Calhoun County, Texas], on the Gulf of Mexico, San Antonio (Texas), El Paso del Norte, [see comment]". However, Smith (1938c) and Cochran (1961) give the type locality as Indianola

undulatus: USA (South Carolina); Type Locality: "Les grands bois de la Caroline." Of neotype, 3.2 mi (5.14 km) N intersection of South Carolina route 41 and county road 100 at Wando (Cainhoy), in Francis Marion National Forest, Berkeley County, South Carolina. Wando, or Cainhoy, is 15.25 mi (24.6 km) NE Charleston, S. C.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesNeotype: NCSM 83600 (was ChM = Charleston Museum = CR) 1981, collected by John Quinby 31 October 1953, designated by Bell (1996). Original types lost.
Holotype: USNM 2874, collected by Dr. R. W. Jeffries, U. S. N. [floridanus]
Syntypes: Three: USNM 2887, collected by J. H. Clark [thayerii]
Holotype: USNM 8613, collected August 1874, by W. G. Shedd [tristichus]
Holotype: ANSP 8347; New Jersey [Lacerta fasciata]
Syntypes: ANSP 8345-46, 8348; New Jersey; Neotype: ANSP 35082, collected 3 May 1993 by R. T. Zappalorti and E. L. Bell; see Bell (1996) [hyacinthinus]
Syntype: USNM 2887 [Sceloporus thayeri] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSubspecies: Sceloporus undulatus consobrinus and Sceloporus undulatus edbelli are treated as full species now. Leaché and Cole (2007) presented evidence for hybridization between S. cowlesi and S. tristichus. MILES et al. (2002) could not find convincing evidence for the validity of genetically distinct subspecies of C. undulatus. S. (u.) tristichus is the race of S. undulatus sympatric with occidentalis longipes in the Pine Valley Mountains of southwestern Utah (Cole, 1963; Smith and Chiszar, 1989). Other species previously included in undulatus have been assigned to S. cowlesi, S. consobrinus, or S. tristichus (Leaché 2009).

Hybridization: S. u. garmani and erythrocheilus hybridize in Colorado (Smith et al. 1991).

Distribution: The information in this record needs to be updated. See Leaché et al. 2009 for a map of undulatus and other species. Based on LEACHÉ (2009), Sceloporus undulatus is restricted to east of the Mississippi River and S. consobrinus to the west. Not in Nuevo León fide Nevárez-de los Reyes et al. 2016. Leaché (2009) restricted the distribution of S. consobrinus to the United States and indicated the member of the undulatus group found within Nuevo León to be S. cowlesi, which is the name Lazcano et al. 2019 use for the Coahuilan populations (hence they do not list undulatus for Coahuila). Not in Sonora fide Lemos-Espinal et al. 2019, although the original type locality of thayerii said “as far westward as the province of Sonora”. Not in Durango fide Lemos-Espinal (2018). Not in Canada (British Columbia [as reported by BOULENGER 1887], see map in Powell et al. 2016: 294)

Nomenclature: Lacerta fasciata Green, 1818 is a junior primary homonym of Lacerta fasciata Linnaeus (1758); see Smith (1947). 
EtymologyEtymology (edbelli): named after Edwin L. Bell, Professor Emeritus of Biology at Albright College, Reading, Pennsylvania, who worked for many years on S. occidentalis and the systematics of the UNDULATUS group.

Etymology (elongatus): The Latin elongatus refers to the elongate tail and legs, as described by Stejneger (1890).

Etymology (erythrocheilus): The Greek erythros, "red," and cheilos, "lip," refer to the rust-reddish coloration of the lips and adjacent scales in breeding males.

Etymology (garmani): The genitive singular noun honors Samuel Garman, Curator at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, who authored nearly 50 works in herpetology from 1874-1917. Garman sent the syntypes to Boulenger.

Etymology (hyacinthinus): The Greek singular noun is from hyakinthinus, "lily," and refers to the blue colors of the abdominal semeions.

Etymology (speari): The genitive singular patronym honors Norman E. Spear, Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the State University of New York at Binghamton, where he is Co-director of the Center for Developmental Psychology, and was a mentor for David Chiszar.

Etymology (tedbrowni): The Latin genitive singular honors Ted L. Brown, authority on the herpetology of New Mexico, and long editor of the New Mexico Herpetological Society Newsletter.

Etymology (thayerii): This name honors Col. Sylvanus Thayer, founder of the instructional regimen at West Point Military Academy in the middle of the 19th century.

Etymology (undulatus): The Latin undulatus, "wavy," refers to the undulant transverse dark cross-bars on the dorsum. 
References
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