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Sinomicrurus annularis (GÜNTHER, 1864)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: MacClelland’s Coral Snake
G: MacClellands Korallenotter
Chinese: 环纹华珊瑚蛇 
SynonymCallophis [sic] annularis GÜNTHER 1864: 349
Callophis [sic] annularis — GÜNTHER 1888: 171
Callophis maclellandi — SCLATER 1891: 56 (in part)
Callophis macclellandii — WALL 1903: 97 (in part)
Callophis Mac Clellandi — VAILLANT 1904: 298
Callophis macclellandi macclellandi — WALL 1908b: 37 (in part)
Calliophis macclellandii — STEJNEGER 1907: 391 (in part)
Callophis macclellandi — WALL 1918: 628, 631 (in part)
Calliophis macclellandi — MELL 1922: 7, 9, 229
Calliophis macclellandi — WALL 1925b: 244 (in part)
Callophis macclellandi swinhoei — BOURRET 1934c
Calliophis macclellandii macclellandii — BOURRET 1935a
Hemibungarus macclellandi macclellandi — GOLAY et al., 1993: 142 (in part)
Hemibungarus macclellandi — LU et al., 1999: 234
Sinomicrurus macclellandi — SLOWINSKI et al., 2001: 233
Hemibungarus macclellandii macclellandii — KABISCH 2002: 973
Sinomicrurus macclellandi macclellandi — ZHAO 2006: 299 (in part)
Sinomicrurus macclellandii — SMITH et al., 2012: 54
Sinomicrurus macclellandi sensu lato — MIRZA et al., 2020: 105
Sinomicrurus annularis — SMART et al. 2021 
DistributionChina

Type locality: restricted to Hong Kong Island by Smart et al. 2021.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1948.1.18.3, adult male [original number BMNH 61.8.12.48; 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Based on 51 individuals (35 males, 16 females) exam-
ined by us and variation recorded from literature when sex was given (See Appendix 2); relatively small species of Sinomicrurus (1) SVL 199– 616 mm (mean 374.5 mm) in males, 217–560 mm (mean 384.5 mm) females; (2) temporals 1+1; (3) no maxillary teeth behind fangs, palatine teeth 4–7, pterygoid teeth 3–4, dentary teeth 6–11; (4) supralabials 7/7 (holotype 6/6), contacting eye 3–4; (5) infralabials 6/6 (4 large, equal sized chin-shields, gular 1, preventrals 3); (6) postoculars 2; (7) nuchal-band width 1–3.3 scales in males, 1.3–4 scales in females; (8) black body bands 1–39 in males, 0–35 in females; (9) small paired contralateral black spots, occupying less than one full scale, often present in-between black bands on dorsum; (10) ventrals 194–220 in males, 202–228 in females; (11) anal divided; (12) paired subcaudals 26–38 in males, 24–34 in females; (13) tail bands 0–7 in males, 0–6 in females; (14) relative tail length (TL/SVL) 0.09–0.14 (mean 0.12) in males, 0.08–0.12 (mean 0.10) in females (Smart et al. 2021: 2230).

Comparisons. Sinomicrurus annularis, a banded temperate Asian coralsnakes with 13 dorsal scales rows (with S. annularis S. iwasakii, S. peinani, S. macclellandi, S. swinhoei; Table 2); most closely resembles its sister species S. swinhoei, but differs in having fewer ventrals (females 202–228 vs. 223–239, males 194–220 vs. 207–221) and subcaudals (females 24–34 vs. 32–36, males 26–38 vs. 36–41); from S. iwasakii in having fewer subcaudals (males 26–38 vs. 35–40, females 24–34 vs. 32–37), 1+1 temporals (vs. 1+2, at least on one side), a more caudal posterior edge of parietal-band at midline (1.38– 2.03 vs. 1.05–1.09, PPB-M-Ratio) and at level of eye (1.33–2.02 vs. 1.16–1.34, PPB-S-Ratio); from S. peinani and S. macclellandi, by its relatively small size (mean SVL <400 mm vs. >400 mm); additionally from S. peinani, by black rostral-band spilling into frontal (vs. not covering frontal), nuchal-band beginning at parietals or at their edge, straight in dorsal profile (vs. nuchal-band beginning at middle or posterior margin of mid-dorsal scale located after parietals, curved forward, Figure 8), a more rostral posterior edge of parietal-band at midline (1.38–2.03 vs. 1.86–2.90, PPB-M-Ratio) and at level of eye (1.33–2.02 vs. 2.04–3.03, PPB-S-Ratio), anterior edge of nuchalband usually strait (vs. curved forward behind parietals); additionally from S. macclellandi, by its more caudal posterior edge of parietalband, at midline and in females (1.60–2.03 vs. 0.61–1.60, PPB-M- Ratio), and anterior edge of nuchal-band usually strait (vs. usually pointing forward between parietals).
Sinomicrurus annularis can be distinguished from other congeners (Tables 4 and 5), from S. kelloggi in having fewer dorsal scale rows (13 vs. 15) and 1+1 temporals (vs. 1+2); from S. boettgeri, S. japonicus, and S. sauteri in lacking mid-dorsal stripe (vs. present); from S. boettgeri and S. sauteri in lacking lateral longitudinal stripes (vs. present); from S. boettgeri and S. japonicus, in having complete pale parietalband (yellow/cream/white); from S. kelloggi, S. boettgeri, S. japonicus, and S. sauteri, in lacking maxillary teeth behind fang (0 vs. 2–5); from S. iwasakii, S. kelloggi, S. boettgeri, and S. sauteri, in having fewer palatine teeth (4–7 vs. 8–14); from S. kelloggi, S. boettgeri, S. japonicus, and S. sauteri, in having fewer pterygoid teeth (3–4 vs. 6–16); from S. kelloggi, S. boettgeri, and S. japonicus, in having fewer dentary teeth (6–11 vs. 13–18).
Sinomicrurus annularis differs from other congeners in hemipenial morphology (Table 6, Figure 12a); from S. iwasakii differs in having lobe tips pointed (vs. round), spines around main body 11–16 (vs. 20), main body bulge moderately enlarged (vs. slightly enlarged), organ moderately short—organ length/TL 0.19 (vs. 0.4), basal pocket short—pocket length/organ length 0.23 (vs. 0.37, long), lobe length/ organ length 0.23 (vs. 0.16), retractor muscle insertion 19–24 (vs. 31–31; subcaudals); from S. peinani in having lobes subcylindrical (vs. bulbous) with tips pointed (vs. round), spines around main body 11– 16 (vs. 18–23) and thin (vs. thick), base with many small spines (vs. many thick but short spines), main body bulge moderately enlarged (vs. highly enlarged) with groove above (asulcate side) shallow (vs. deep), organ moderately short—organ length/TL 0.19 (vs. 0.21), lobe length/organ length 0.23 (vs. 0.15),from S. macclellandi in having lobes subcylindrical (vs. attenuate), spines around main body 11–16 (vs. 18–30), organ moderately short—organ length/TL 0.19 (vs. 0.21– 0.23), lobe length/organ length 0.23 (vs. 0.11–0.15);from S. swinhoei in having lobes subcylindrical (vs. attenuate), sulcus spermaticus centripetal (vs. centrolineal), basal pocket moderately deep (vs. shallow) with bordering lip moderately thick (vs. moderately thin), organ moderately short—organ length/TL 0.19 (vs. 0.08–0.15, very short), lobe length/organ length 0.23 (vs. 0.07–0.20), retractor muscle anterior vertebral insertion 19–24 (vs. 27–28, subcaudals); from S. kelloggi in having lobes subcylindrical (vs. attenuate and hornlike), sulcus spermaticus centripetal (vs. centrolineal), spines around main body 11–16 (vs. 20), base with many small spines (vs. few small spines), basal pocket moderately deep (vs. very deep) with bordering lip moderately thick (vs. very thick), main body bulge complete (vs. restricted to asulcate side) with groove above (asulcate side) narrow (vs. broad), length to organ furcation/organ length 0.77 (vs. 0.56), base length/organ length 0.29 (vs. 0.12), lobe length/organ length 0.23 (vs. 0.44); from S. boettgeri in having lobe tips pointed (vs. round), sulcus spermaticus centripetal (vs. centripetal-revolute), base with many small spines (vs. smooth), basal pocket moderately deep (vs. shallow) with bordering lip bordering moderately thick (vs. very thin), main body bulge complete and moderately enlarged (vs. absent) with groove above (asulcate side) shallow and narrow (vs. absent), organ moderately short—organ length/TL 0.19 (vs. 0.25– 0.26), length to organ furcation/organ length 0.77 (vs. 0.67–0.75), base length/organ length 0.29 (vs. 0.44–0.53), basal pocket short— pocket length/organ length 0.23 (vs. 0.41–0.47); from S. japonicus in having lobe tips pointed (vs. round), base with many small spines (vs. smooth), basal pocket short and moderately deep (vs. very long and extremely shallow to absent) with bordering lip moderately thick (vs. very thin), main body bulge complete and moderately enlarged (vs. absent) with groove above (asulcate side) shallow and narrow (vs. absent), organ moderately short—organ length/TL 0.19 (vs. 0.25), length to organ furcation/organ length 0.77 (vs. 0.68), base length/ organ length 0.29 (vs. 0.56), basal pocket short—pocket length/organ length 0.23 (vs. 0.39); from S. sauteri in having lobes subcylindrical (vs. attenuate) with tips pointed (vs. round), spines around main body 11–16 (vs. 17–19), base with many small spines (vs. smooth, very few tiny spines), basal pocket short and moderately deep (vs. very long and very deep), main body bulge complete and moderately enlarged (vs. absent) with groove above (asulcate side) shallow and narrow (vs. absent), organ moderately short—organ length/TL 0.19 (vs. 0.30–0.31), basal pocket short—pocket length/organ length 0.23 (vs. 0.36–0.36), lobe length/organ length 0.23 (vs. 0.09–0.21), hemipenis extent 5–7 (vs. 9–15, subcaudals), hemipenis furcation extent 4–6 (vs. 8–12, subcaudals), retractor muscle anterior vertebral insertion 19–24 (vs. 25–30, subcaudals) (Smart et al. 2021: 2230).

Color. Body and tail reddish-brown; snout white at edge almost completely or dabbed with white; black eye band starting at more than half way up prefrontals, extending 3/4th of way into frontal scale and abutting at upper edge of parietals; nuchal-band slightly concave or straight anteriorly, beginning at terminal tips of parietals and about two dorsal shields thick; area between two bands white; black body bands with thin white edge; occasional presence of two black dots placed on lateral edge of dorsum, with one pair in between each black band; in many specimens, thin, black broken streak between first pair of dots, climbing upward toward but not reaching nuchalband; belly yellowish, with patches of black in between bands (Smart et al. 2021: 2230). 
CommentSynonymy: mostly from Smart et al. 2021 who resurrected Sinomicrurus annularis from the synonymy of Sinomicrurus macclellandi. See that paper also for references.

Distribution: for a map of localities see Smart et al. 2021: 2231 (Fig. 7). 
References
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1888. On a collection of reptiles from China. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1: 165-172 - get paper here
  • Smart, U., Ingrasci, M. J., Sarker, G. C., Lalremsanga, H., Murphy, R. W., Ota, H., Tu, M. C., Shouche, Y., Orlov, N. L., & Smith, E. N. 2021. A comprehensive appraisal of evolutionary diversity in venomous Asian coralsnakes of the genus Sinomicrurus (Serpentes: Elapidae) using Bayesian coalescent inference and supervised machine learning. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 59, 2212–2277 - get paper here
 
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